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Naruto: Shippuden (season 6)

05-01-2022 · The sixth season of the Naruto: Shippuden anime series is directed by Hayato Date, and produced by Studio Pierrot and TV Tokyo.They are based on Part II for Masashi Kishimoto's manga series. The sixth season aired from June 2009 to January 2010 on TV Tokyo. The season follows Naruto Uzumaki's rival and former friend, Sasuke Uchiha taking revenge against Itachi to avenge their clan.

Season of television series
Shippuden season 6 vol1.jpgNaruto: ShippudenSeason 6
Season 6 Cover
Country of originJapanNo. of episodes31ReleaseOriginal networkTV TokyoOriginal releaseJune 11, 2009 (2009-06-11) –
January 14, 2010 (2010-01-14)Season chronology
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List of episodes

The sixth season of the Naruto: Shippuden anime series is directed by Hayato Date, and produced by Studio Pierrot and TV Tokyo. They are based on Part II for Masashi Kishimoto's manga series. The sixth season aired from June 2009 to January 2010 on TV Tokyo.[1][2] The season follows Sasuke Uchiha taking revenge against Itachi to avenge their clan. It also features two arcs focusing on the background stories for Kakashi Hatake and Jiraiya. The season is referred to by its DVDs as the chapter of Master's Prophecy and Vengeance (師の予言と復讐, Shi no Yogen to Fukushū) released by Aniplex.[3]

The seven DVD volumes were released in Japan between January 13, 2010 and July 7, 2011. Limited edition of Seventh DVD of "Master's Prophecy and Vengeance" comes with special DVD Behind the Scenes of Uchiha containing interview mixed with footage from episodes.[4] Episodes 119 and 120, detailing the story of Kakashi and Obito Uchiha, were released on separate disc on December 16, 2009 under the title of Kakashi Chronicles: Boys' Life on the Battlefield (カカシ外伝~戦場のボーイズライフ~, Kakashi Gaiden ~Senjō no Bōizu Raifu~).[5]

The season aired on Neon Alley from January 12 to February 4, 2013. The season would make its English television debut on Adult Swim's Toonami programming block and premiere from May 22, 2016 to January 29, 2017.

The season uses five musical themes: two opening themes and three ending themes. "Hotaru no Hikari" (ホタルノヒカリ, "Glow of Fireflies") by Ikimono-gakari is used as the opening theme from episode 113 to episode 128, continuing its usage from the previous season. It was replaced in episode 129 with "Sign" by Flow. The first ending theme is "Shinkokyū" (深呼吸, "Deep Breath") by Super Beaver used for only the first three episodes of the season. "My Answer" by Seamo was used as the ending theme for episodes 116–128. It was replaced in episode 129 by "Omae Dattanda" (おまえだったんだ, "It Was You") by Kishidan and ran until episode 141. It was replaced by "For You" by Azu in episode 142. The third feature film, Naruto Shippūden The Movie: Inheritors of the Will of Fire, based on the series, was released on August 1, 2009. The broadcast versions of episodes from 119 to 124 include scenes from the film in the opening themes, while still retaining the music "Hotaru no Hikari" by Ikimono-gakari.

Episode list

No. in
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateEnglish air date
1131"The Serpent's Pupil[note 1]"
Transcription: "Daija no dōkō" (Japanese: 大蛇の瞳孔)
Masayuki MatsumotoMasahiro HikokuboJune 11, 2009 (2009-06-11)January 12, 2013
The time for the Reanimation jutsu is coming and Orochimaru's body is reaching its limit. Kabuto and Orochimaru discuss Sasuke Uchiha's growth during the Chunin Exams, Orochimaru also tells Kabuto that he wants Sasuke's body. After practicing his ninja techniques, Sasuke makes a sudden attack on Orochimaru, having nothing else to learn from him. Orochimaru reveals his true form, a giant white snake, and makes his attempt to take Sasuke's body. Sasuke uses his Cursed Seal to counter it. Meanwhile, Tsunade discovers the Three-Tails is taken by Akatsuki.
1142"Eye of the Hawk"
Transcription: "Taka no hitomi" (Japanese: 鷹の瞳)
Hiroshi KimuraMasahiro HikokuboJune 18, 2009 (2009-06-18)January 12, 2013
Orochimaru reminisces about the memories of his past, how he became interested in reanimation and the Sharingan. Orochimaru begins the ritual to take over Sasuke's body. Later on, Kabuto arrives to see Sasuke standing over Orochimaru's snake corpse, and from the Sharingan, he finds out what happened: Orochimaru had failed in possessing Sasuke's body, as Sasuke manages to reverse Orochimaru's Jutsu and absorbs Orochimaru into his body. Sasuke then leaves his hideout to find his own path.
1153"Zabuza's Blade"
Transcription: "Zabuza no daitō" (Japanese: 再不斬の大刀)
Shuu WatanabeShin YoshidaJune 25, 2009 (2009-06-25)January 12, 2013
Sasuke frees Suigetsu Hozuki from his hydro capsule, and requests his services. Suigetsu responds that he would gladly give them, on condition that he helps him find Zabuza's sword. They fail to find the blade at his grave, but learn that it is in the possession of a man named Tenzen Daikoku. Sasuke uses Tenzen's guarded fortress to test Suigetsu's combat abilities, and Suigetsu gets the blade without much effort. As promised, Suigetsu joins up with Sasuke, and goes with him to the Southern hideout.
1164"Guardian of the Iron Wall"
Transcription: "Teppeki no bannin" (Japanese: 鉄壁の番人)
Kunitoshi OkajimaYasuyuki SuzukiJuly 2, 2009 (2009-07-02)January 12, 2013
The second member of Sasuke's team is revealed to be a woman named Karin. After Sasuke and Suigetsu arrive at the Southern Hideout, Sasuke requests that Karin comes with them. Despite her hesitations and quarrels with Suigetsu, Karin ultimately accepts after remembering her very first encounter with Sasuke. Sasuke orders Suigetsu to release the prisoners, and after that, they set off to recruit the final member of the team - Jugo.
1175"Jugo of the North Hideout"
Transcription: "Kita ajito no Jūgo" (Japanese: 北アジトの重吾)
Yuki ArieShin YoshidaJuly 9, 2009 (2009-07-09)January 14, 2013
While approaching the hideout, Karin explains that Jugo has abnormal homicidal impulses, and is the original carrier of the enzyme used to create Orochimaru’s Curse Mark. Upon arriving there, Sasuke and his team are attacked by a massive number of rampaging prisoners, who they manage to suppress. Later on, Sasuke is attacked by Jugo, but he expresses that he only wishes to talk with him. In the meantime, Naruto Uzumaki and Sakura Haruno find out that Sasuke has killed Orochimaru.
Transcription: "Kessei!" (Japanese: 結成!)
Kiyomu FukudaShin YoshidaJuly 23, 2009 (2009-07-23)January 14, 2013
While fighting with Sasuke, Jugo remembers how he met his friend - Kimimaro, and what he experienced with him. After being told that Kimimaro has died for his sake, Jugo agrees to go with them, believing that Kimimaro lives on within Sasuke. After informing his newly formed team that his goal is to kill Itachi Uchiha of the Akatsuki, Sasuke names their group "Hebi" ["Snake"]. In the meantime, Naruto decides to go after Itachi in hopes of finding Sasuke.
1197"Kakashi Chronicles ~Boys' Life on the Battlefield~ Part 1"
Transcription: "Kakashi Gaiden ~Senjō no bōizuraifu~ Zenpen" (Japanese: カカシ外伝~戦場のボーイズライフ~前編)
Yasumi MikamotoJunki TakegamiJuly 30, 2009 (2009-07-30)January 14, 2013
During the Third Great Ninja War seventeen years ago, a 13-year-old Kakashi Hatake is just promoted to Jonin with his mentor, the future Fourth Hokage Minato Namikaze, and Rin Nohara giving him gifts. Only Kakashi's other teammate and rival, Obito Uchiha, forgot to bring a present. Soon after, Minato tells his students of their mission to destroy Kannabi Bridge so they can cripple the ninja from the Hidden Stone Village. Along the way, Team Minato is ambushed by Hidden Stone ninja named Mahiru with Kakashi seeing it as an opportunity to try his newly developed jutsu: the Chidori. However, with Kakashi's attack unable to land a hit on his target and Obito is too frightened to fight, Minato personally eliminates Mahiru. Minato then tells Kakashi not to use the Chidori due to its vertigo effect while criticizing Obito for not being able to act on his words. That night, unable to sleep, Obito learns from Minato that Kakashi's mindset is the result of his father Sakumo Hatake bring ostracized for putting his teammates ahead of the mission. The next day, left in charge as Minato heads off, Kakashi leads Rin and Obito into enemy territory before they are attacked by the Hidden Stone ninja Kakko and Taiseki who abduct Rin. Having accepted Kakashi as leader prior, Obito punches him for putting the mission before Rin as he runs off to save her. When Kakashi tries to stop him telling him what happens to ninja who break the rules, Obito says he does, and that's why he believes that Kakashi's father was a true hero, and commenting that those who break the rules maybe scum, but those who abandoned their comrades are worse than scum, before he leaves.
1208"Kakashi Chronicles ~Boys' Life on the Battlefield~ Part 2"
Transcription: "Kakashi Gaiden ~Senjō no bōizuraifu~ Kōhen" (Japanese: カカシ外伝~戦場のボーイズライフ~後編)
Masahiro TakadaJunki TakegamiJuly 30, 2009 (2009-07-30)January 14, 2013
After leaving an impression on Kakashi, Obito finds the cave where Rin is being held in before attacked by Taiseki. When Kakashi arrives in time to save him from being killed, losing his left eye in the process, Obito musters courage and takes out Taiseki with his awakened Sharingan. Kakashi and Obito then proceed to rescue Rin, but Kakko causes the cave to collapse in on them. With rocks falling all around the Konoha ninja, Obito threw Kakashi out of the way of a falling rock, which landed on him instead, and crushed the entire right side of his body. Knowing his death is certain, remembering that he still owe his team mate a gift, Obito has Rin transplant his left eye into Kakashi's eye socket. Seeing Kakashi cry over how things turned out, Obito assures him that is a great ninja and asks him to protect Rin. Once Obito's Sharingan is transplanted into him, Kakashi emerges from the rubble and uses a perfected Chidori to kill Kakko. However, more Hidden Stone ninja arrive and cause the cave to collapse further with Obito apparently crushed as Kakashi and Rin are forced to leave him behind. After being saved by Minato, the surviving members of Team Minato lament over losing Obito before they complete their mission in destroying the Kannabi Bridge.
Transcription: "Ugokidasumono-tachi" (Japanese: 動き出すものたち)
Masayuki MatsumotoYuka MiyataAugust 6, 2009 (2009-08-06)January 19, 2013[6][failed verification]
After capturing the Four-Tails's Jinchūriki Roshi, Itachi and Kisame are informed by the Akatsuki leader of Orochimaru's death. They are then warned about Sasuke's movements and that he may be coming after Itachi. Later, after the Three-Tails and the Four-Tails are sealed, Deidara and Tobi set out targeting either Naruto or Sasuke. Meanwhile, Hebi gathers supplies at an abandoned Uchiha warehouse and Kakashi assembles Team Kurenai, led by himself, to set out with Team Kakashi, led by Yamato, to capture Itachi.
12210"The Hunt"
Transcription: "Tansaku" (Japanese: 探索)
Hiroshi KimuraYuka MiyataAugust 13, 2009 (2009-08-13)January 19, 2013
As Naruto and the others set off with Kakashi's ninja hounds, Hebi scatters to look for information on Itachi. Sakura walks past Karin as Hinata, Yamato and Naruto run into Kabuto, who gives them a book with information on the Akatsuki. He then reveals that in a search to find himself, he has transplanted Orochimaru's remains into himself. He then leaves to track down Sasuke. Elsewhere, Sasuke is confronted by Tobi and Deidara and prepares for a battle with them.
Transcription: "Gekitotsu!" (Japanese: 激突!)
Toshiyuki TsuruToshiyuki TsuruAugust 20, 2009 (2009-08-20)January 19, 2013
Sasuke asks where Itachi is and slices through Tobi, as Deidara retreats to a distance. Tobi gets back up unharmed as Deidara retaliates with his chakra-level 1 (C1) explosives. Sasuke escapes with a simple replacement jutsu forcing Deidara to use one of his C2 creations, the C2 Dragon. Working with Tobi, they forced Sasuke to use the Curse Mark. In the end, Sasuke defeats their combos, and Deidara is left with no choice but to use his trump card that was meant for Itachi, the C4 Karura.
Transcription: "Geijutsu" (Japanese: 芸術)
Kunitoshi OkajimaJunki TakegamiAugust 27, 2009 (2009-08-27)January 19, 2013
As Deidara's C4 Karura detonates, Sasuke perishes. Believing to have won, Deidara drops his guard, only to be pierced by Sasuke's Chidori. After being asked how he had survived, Sasuke reveals that he was never harmed and that Deidara was under his genjutsu. Deidara tries to kill Sasuke, but is misled by his Sharingan again. Both combatants collapse and Sasuke deactivates his Sharingan. Angered at being mocked, Deidara unveils his final attack, turning himself into a living bomb and detonating himself in an attempt to kill Sasuke.
Transcription: "Shōshitsu" (Japanese: 消失)
Yuki KinoshitaYasuyuki SuzukiSeptember 3, 2009 (2009-09-03)January 21, 2013
Upon noticing the blast, Suigetsu summons Manda and finds out that Sasuke had used him to escape. Unable to survive, Manda dies from his wounds and Zetsu informs the remaining Akatsuki of the death of Deidara and Tobi. Naruto and the others get to the crater, and using Kiba's tracking skills they begin to track down Sasuke's scent. Meanwhile, the Akatsuki leader, Pain and his partner, Konan, are then ordered to capture the Nine-Tailed Jinchūriki by a mysterious man, Tobi, who reveals his identity to be Madara Uchiha.
Transcription: "Tasogare" (Japanese: 黄昏)
Kiyomu FukudaMasahiro HikokuboSeptember 10, 2009 (2009-09-10)January 21, 2013
Jiraiya arrives in Konohagakure and tells Tsunade that he has information regarding Pain's location. In the meantime, Karin senses that they're being followed and asks Jugo to help her throw off their pursuers. As Hebi departs, Naruto encounters Itachi. After talking, Itachi departs, having more pressing matters to attend to. Meanwhile, Jiraiya and Tsunade discuss Naruto's parents, Minato Namikaze and Kushina Uzumaki, and the Foundation before Jiraiya departs for the Hidden Rain Village.
12715"Tales of a Gutsy Ninja ~Jiraiya Ninja Scroll~ Part 1"
Transcription: "Dokonjō ninden ~Jiraiya ninpōchō~ Zenpen" (Japanese: ド根性忍伝~自来也忍法帖~前編)
Shuu WatanabeJunki TakegamiSeptember 24, 2009 (2009-09-24)January 21, 2013
Back in the times of the Third Hokage's youth, the young, soon-to-be Sannin are assigned to Hiruzen Sarutobi's platoon. Being fascinated by Sarutobi’s summoning jutsu, Jiraiya tries it himself, only to teleport himself to Mount Myoboku. There, Jiraiya trains under Fukusaku and meets the Great Lord Elder who has a vision of his future. Afterwards, Jiraiya goes on a journey with the goal to fulfill his destiny, meeting many strange characters on the way.
12816"Tales of a Gutsy Ninja ~Jiraiya Ninja Scroll~ Part 2"
Transcription: "Dokonjō ninden ~Jiraiya ninpōchō~ Kōhen" (Japanese: ド根性忍伝~自来也忍法帖~後編)
Shigeharu TakahashiJunki TakegamiSeptember 24, 2009 (2009-09-24)January 21, 2013
Due to the Second Great Ninja War, Jiraiya, Tsunade and Orochimaru are sent to the Hidden Rain Village, where they are named the "Legendary Sannin" by Hanzo of the Great Salamander. While in the village, Jiraiya meets with Yahiko, Nagato and Konan who request help from him. Jiraiya accepts and proceeds to train them before returning home. He is later informed that all three children were killed. Some time later, Jiraiya trains Minato, who together with Kushina, names their unborn son "Naruto" after the main character in Jiraiya's first book.
12917"Infiltrate! The Village Hidden in the Rain"
Transcription: "Sennyū! Amegakure no Sato" (Japanese: 潜入! 雨隠れの里)
Yuusuke OnodaShin YoshidaOctober 8, 2009 (2009-10-08)January 26, 2013
Jiraiya successfully infiltrates the Village Hidden in the Rain, where he wanders around town and speaks to the inhabitants about their leader, Pain. Unsuccessful in gathering information, he captures two lower ninja of the city in a frog's stomach, who end up telling him that the mysterious Pain had defeated the former leader of Rain, Hanzo, whom the Sannin together couldn't defeat. Meanwhile, Pain orders Konan to search for the intruder and she folds herself into origami butterflies.
13018"The Man Who Became God"
Transcription: "Kami to natta Otoko" (Japanese: 神となった男)
Hiroshi KimuraShin YoshidaOctober 8, 2009 (2009-10-08)January 26, 2013
Jiraiya summons Gerotora and talks with it about he's going on a battle and be ready. He also tells that the Nine-tails attack was not a natural disaster, it was summoned by someone. Jiraiya revealed that it was summoned by an Uchiha and it was Madara Uchiha. Pain changes into a new body and tells Konan to confront Jiraiya, their former sensei. Pain soon arrives himself and discusses his personal ideology and the Akatsuki's goals with Jiraiya. He reveals that the collection of the Tailed Beasts is in order to create a Forbidden Jutsu weapon that will be able to destroy entire nations in an instant, so that the world will be able to "mature" and develop an aversion for war. Pain then summons a crab to attack Jiraiya, which is defeated before Jiraiya summons a giant frog named Gamaken.
13119"Honored Sage Mode!"
Transcription: "Hatsudō! Sennin Mōdo" (Japanese: 発動! 仙人モード)
Akitoshi YokoyamaYasuyuki SuzukiOctober 15, 2009 (2009-10-15)January 26, 2013
Jiraiya and Gamaken begin their battle against Pain, who has hidden himself using camouflage. Jiraiya uses a barrier jutsu to try and find him while preparing to enter Sage Mode. Meanwhile, Pain assaults Jiraiya with a barrage of animal summons, such as a multiplying dog, a rhino, a bird and a bull, and Jiraiya finally enters in Sage Mode, after sending Gamaken back home. He summons Lord Fukasaku and Lady Shima, who find Pain and destroy his chameleon. Pain then summons two more bodies.
13220"In Attendance, the Six Paths of Pain"
Transcription: "Pein Rikudō, kenzan" (Japanese: ペイン六道、見参)
Fujiaki AsariYuka MiyataOctober 22, 2009 (2009-10-22)January 26, 2013
Jiraiya blinds one of the new Pains, and Lord Fukasaku suspects that all three share the same eyes and vision, while Jiraiya realizes that each of the bodies has only one specific purpose. Jiraiya stalls for time while Lord Fukasaku and Lady Shima prepare a powerful genjutsu to defeat the bodies and are successful in doing so. As Jiraiya leaves, another Pain ambushes Jiraiya destroying his left arm. As Jiraiya looks up he sees six Pains, including the three that were killed. He stands horrified wondering just who and what Pain is.
13321"The Tale of Jiraiya the Gallant"
Transcription: "Jiraiya gōketsu monogatari" (Japanese: 自来也豪傑物語)
Masaaki KumagaiJunki TakegamiOctober 29, 2009 (2009-10-29)January 28, 2013
Jiraiya goes into deep panic thinking Pain is either Yahiko or Nagato, as Pain possesses Rinnegan which Nagato had and he appears as Yahiko. Jiraiya kills one of the Pains only to realise he's fought him before. Lady Shima leaves on Jiraiya's request, before Jiraiya realizes that he has met all of the Pains before. Jiraiya figures out who Pain is but it is unable to relay the message as Pain's attack crushes Jiraiya's throat. As he begins to die, he remembers Naruto's determination and forces himself awake, where he writes a message on Lord Fukasaku's back. Pain then blasts him into the ocean, where Jiraiya dies happy, sure that Naruto is the child of Prophecy.
13422"Banquet Invitation"
Transcription: "Utage e no izanai" (Japanese: 宴への誘い)
Kiyomu FukudaMasahiro HikokuboNovember 5, 2009 (2009-11-05)January 28, 2013
While Naruto's team continues their search for Sasuke, Sasuke meets Itachi in a cave, fights an illusion and is told to come to the Uchiha hideout. On their way, Sasuke's team is intercepted by a shadow clone of Naruto, which Sasuke easily dispatches. The real Naruto quickly sends his team after Sasuke, but they are stopped by Tobi. Meanwhile, Team Hebi is confronted by Kisame who won't let anyone but Sasuke pass. Sasuke carries on while his team, specifically Suigetsu, faces Kisame.
13523"The Longest Moment"
Transcription: "Nagaki toki no naka de..." (Japanese: 長き瞬間の中で...)
Atsushi NigorikawaShin YoshidaNovember 19, 2009 (2009-11-19)January 28, 2013
As Sasuke approaches the Uchiha hideout, Itachi recalls his past with his little brother and the assassination that he carried out after joining the Anbu and being under close watch for his suspicious activities. When Sasuke arrives, he declares that his eyes have shown him Itachi's death and the fated battle between the two brothers begins. Itachi's illusions deceive Sasuke as he explains that he conspired with Madara Uchiha, the Leaf's founder and the first to awaken the Mangekyo Sharingan, when he killed their clan.
13624"The Light & Dark of the Mangekyo Sharingan"
Transcription: "Mangekyō Sharingan no hikari to yami" (Japanese: 万華鏡写輪眼の光と闇)
Shigeharu TakahashiYasuyuki SuzukiNovember 19, 2009 (2009-11-19)January 28, 2013
As Zetsu watches on, Itachi explains to Sasuke the secret behind the Mangekyo Sharingan, and the history of the Uchiha clan. Besides being able to tame the Nine-Tailed Fox, the Mangekyo will eventually rob the user of his eyesight and the only way to overcome this obstacle is to steal the Sharingan eyes of that person's sibling. Sasuke retaliates against Itachi's assaults, but he is eventually pinned to a wall and has one of his eyes seemingly stolen by Itachi.
(Japanese: 天照)
Yuusuke OnodaYuka MiyataNovember 26, 2009 (2009-11-26)February 2, 2013
As Itachi moves in to take his remaining eye, Sasuke manages to overcome the Tsukuyomi he was placed under. With Genjutsu now useless, the brothers switch to Ninjutsu, with Sasuke gaining the upper hand. Itachi then unleashes Amaterasu, however Sasuke uses a Substitution Jutsu to escape the flames. Itachi berates Sasuke, claiming he now has no chakra left, but Sasuke reveals that he had come prepared, and has one last technique left that would make his dream of killing Itachi a reality.
13826"The End"
Transcription: "Shūen" (Japanese: 終焉)
Masahiko MurataMasahiro HikokuboDecember 3, 2009 (2009-12-03)February 2, 2013
Sasuke summons his Lightning jutsu, Kirin, and directs it at Itachi. However, Itachi rises again and reveals his final Mangekyo technique, Susano'o. With Sasuke weakened, Orochimaru is able to break free from his restrictive chakra and attempts to take Sasuke's body. However, Itachi retaliates by sealing him away into another dimension, ridding Sasuke of the Curse Mark. Out of jutsu, Sasuke is left at Itachi's mercy, but at the last second, Itachi taps Sasuke on his forehead and collapses onto the ground, dead.
13927"The Mystery of Tobi"
Transcription: "Tobi no nazo" (Japanese: トビの謎)
Hiroshi KimuraShin YoshidaDecember 10, 2009 (2009-12-10)February 2, 2013
The leaf ninja continue to fight Tobi, but all of their attacks manage to phase right through him. Shino manages to trap Tobi with a beetle sphere but Tobi uses a teleportation jutsu in order to escape. Zetsu arrives to inform Tobi the outcome of the Uchiha match, the leaf ninja overhears, and Madara drops his goofy persona in order to leave the fight; revealing his Sharingan, and collect the brothers' bodies. Sasuke wakes up in a cave and Madara approaches him, introducing himself. An Amaterasu is unleashed from Sasuke's eye, but Madara recovers from it and mentions how in-depth Itachi's plans were. Sasuke asks what he means, and Madara tells him that Itachi was trying to protect him.
Transcription: "Innen" (Japanese: 因縁)
Minoru YamaokaYasuyuki SuzukiDecember 17, 2009 (2009-12-17)February 2, 2013
Madara tells Sasuke about the history of the Uchiha and how they and their rivals, the Senju clan, led by the future First Hokage, Hashirama Senju, once made a pact to unite the two clans as one and to make the first hidden village, Konoha. Afterwards, the Senju spied on and secretly discriminated against the Uchiha, forcing Madara, their leader, to leave and try to exact revenge upon them. Years later, the Uchiha were planning a coup d'etat on the village and Itachi was chosen by the village leaders to spy on the clan from the inside.
Transcription: "Shinjitsu" (Japanese: 真実)
Shuu WatanabeYuka MiyataDecember 24, 2009 (2009-12-24)February 4, 2013
Madara continues by informing Sasuke that Itachi was a double-agent who was assigned to leak intel on the Uchiha back to the village. He then contacted Madara to help him undertake his mission of exterminating the Uchiha clan. They succeeded in their mission, although Itachi couldn't bring himself to kill Sasuke. Some time later, Sasuke reminisces on Itachi's final words to him, before breaking down into tears. Heartbroken and vengeful, he changes his team's name to Taka and declares that their goal is to destroy Konoha, revealing his newly awakened Mangekyo Sharingan.
14230"Battle of Unraikyo"
Transcription: "Unraikyō no tatakai" (Japanese: 雲雷峡の闘い)
Kiyomu FukudaYasuyuki SuzukiJanuary 7, 2010 (2010-01-07)February 4, 2013
The Konoha teams decide to head back home as Sasuke remembers that he saw Itachi crying after the massacre. He then states that he cannot rebuild the Uchiha clan in the same way that Itachi had envisioned. Madara, happy that he can use Sasuke for himself, assigns Taka the task of capturing the Eight-Tails while Akatsuki hunts the last two. Taka tracks down the host, Killer Bee, to the Land of Lightning and engages him in battle. Bee manages to overpower Jugo and Suigetsu before Sasuke steps up to fight him one-on-one.
14331"The Eight-Tails vs. Sasuke"
Transcription: "Hachibi' tai 'Sasuke" (Japanese: 「八尾」対「サスケ」)
Atsushi NigorikawaShin YoshidaJanuary 14, 2010 (2010-01-14)February 4, 2013
Sasuke fights Killer Bee and is injured by his swords. Karin heals him, and Sasuke, Suigetsu, and Jugo then begin a combined assault on Bee until he decides to use the Eight-Tails' power. Sasuke is injured and revived again by Jugo, who regresses in age as a result. All healed, Sasuke unleashes Amaterasu on Bee in desperation, finally able to subdue him. Meanwhile, two Cloud ninja watch the fight from a cliff, and they notice the Uchiha crest on Sasuke's back. They rush the news to Bee's big brother, the Raikage.

Home releases


Volume Date Discs Episodes Reference
1 January 13, 2010 1 113–116 [7]
2 February 3, 2010 1 117–118, 121–122 [7]
3 March 3, 2010 1 123–126 [7]
4 April 7, 2010 1 127–130 [7]
5 May 12, 2010 1 131–134 [7]
6 June 2, 2010 1 135–138 [7]
7 July 7, 2010 1 139–143 [7]


Viz Media (North America, Region 1)
Box set Date Discs Episodes Reference
10 April 10, 2012 3 113–126 [8]
11 July 10, 2012 3 127–140 [9]
12 October 9, 2012 3 141–153 [10]
Manga Entertainment (United Kingdom, Region 2)
Volume Date Discs Episodes Reference
10 September 10, 2012 2 113–126 [11]
11 November 26, 2012 2 127–140 [12]
12 March 18, 2013 2 141–153 [13]
Madman Entertainment (Australia/New Zealand, Region 4)
Collection Date Discs Episodes Reference
10 July 4, 2012 2 113–126 [14]
11 October 24, 2012 2 127–140 [15]
12 January 9, 2013 2 141–153 [16]


  1. ^ (of the eye)


  • "List of Naruto: Shippuden episode titles". Archived from the original on 2009-12-19. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
  • "Naruto: Shippuden episodes from 2009" (in Japanese). TV Tokyo. Archived from the original on December 26, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
  • "Naruto: Shippuden episodes from 2010" (in Japanese). TV Tokyo. Archived from the original on December 26, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  1. ^ "Naruto: Shippuden episodes from 2009" (in Japanese). TV Tokyo. Archived from the original on December 26, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
  2. ^ "Naruto: Shippuden episodes from 2010" (in Japanese). TV Tokyo. Archived from the original on December 26, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  3. ^ "Naruto: Shippuden DVD title" (in Japanese). Amazon. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
  4. ^ "Archived copy" 疾風伝 アニプレックス (in Japanese). Aniplex. Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-07-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy" スペシャル版| (in Japanese). Aniplex. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Neon Alley Schedule" (PDF). Neon Alley. January 19, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "師の予言と復讐の章 - TV DVD - NARUTO-ナルト- 疾風伝 - アニプレックス" (in Japanese). Aniplex. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016.
  8. ^ "Naruto Shippuden Uncut, Vol. 10 (DVD Box Set)". Viz Media. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017.
  9. ^ "Naruto Shippuden Uncut, Vol 11 (DVD Box Set)". Viz Media. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017.
  10. ^ "Naruto Shippuden Uncut, Vol 12 (DVD Box Set)". Viz Media. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.
  11. ^ "Naruto - Shippuden: Collection - Volume 10 - DVD". Xtra-vision. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017.
  12. ^ "Naruto - Shippuden: Collection - Volume 11 - DVD". Xtra-vision. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017.
  13. ^ "Naruto - Shippuden: Collection - Volume 12 - DVD". Xtra-vision. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017.
  14. ^ "Naruto Shippuden Collection 10 (Eps 113-126) - DVD". Madman Entertainment. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
  15. ^ "Naruto Shippuden Collection 11 (Eps 127-140) - DVD". Madman Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016.
  16. ^ "Naruto Shippuden Collection 12 (Eps 141-153) - DVD". Madman Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016.
Retrieved from ""
2020 Queensland state election

03-01-2022 · Pursuant to Constitution (Fixed Term Parliament) Amendment Act 2015 Queensland has fixed terms, with all elections following the 2020 vote scheduled every four years on the last Saturday of October. The Governor may call an election earlier than scheduled if the Government does not maintain confidence , or the annual appropriation bill fails to pass.

2020 Queensland state election
← 2017 31 October 2020 2024 →
All 93 seats in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland
47 seats needed for a majorityOpinion pollsTurnout3,377,476 (87.9%; Increase 0.4)
  First party Second party Third party
  Annastacia Palaszczuk 2016 (crop).jpg Deb Frecklington headshot crop narrow.jpg Robbie Katter with hat at lookout (cropped).jpg
Leader Annastacia Palaszczuk Deb Frecklington Robbie Katter
Party Labor Liberal National Katter's Australian
Leader since 28 March 2012 (2012-03-28) 12 December 2017 (2017-12-12) 2 February 2015 (2015-02-02)
Leader's seat Inala Nanango Traeger
Last election 48 seats 39 seats 3 seats
Seats after 52 seats 34 seats 3 seats
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 5 Steady
Popular vote 1,134,969 1,029,442 72,168
Percentage 39.6% 35.9% 2.5%
Swing Increase 4.1 Increase 2.2 Increase 0.2
TPP 53.2% 46.8%
TPP swing Increase 1.9 Decrease 1.9
  Fourth party Fifth party
  AustralianGreensLogo official.svg
Leader No leader
Party Greens Pauline Hanson's One Nation
Leader since N/A N/A
Leader's seat N/A N/A
Last election 1 seat 1 seat
Seats after 2 seats 1 seat
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Popular vote 271,514 204,316
Percentage 9.5% 7.1%
Swing Decrease 0.5 Decrease 6.6
2020 Queensland state election - Vote Strength.svg
The map on the left shows the first party preference by electorate. The map on the right shows the final two-party preferred vote result by electorate.
Premier before election

Annastacia Palaszczuk

Elected Premier

Annastacia Palaszczuk

The 2020 Queensland state election was held on 31 October to elect all 93 members to the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The Labor Party was returned to government for a third-term, led by incumbent premier Annastacia Palaszczuk.[1] With 47 seats needed to form a majority government, Labor won 52 seats, including all but five in Brisbane, while the Liberal National Party won 34 seats and formed opposition. On the crossbench, Katter's Australian Party retained its 3 seats, the Queensland Greens picked up South Brisbane for a total of 2, Pauline Hanson's One Nation retained Mirani and independent Sandy Bolton retained her seat of Noosa.

At 11pm on 31 October, Liberal National Party leader Deb Frecklington conceded defeat, congratulating Palaszczuk on the election.[1] Frecklington initially indicated that she would stay on as party leader, but on 2 November announced that she would convene a party meeting and resign as leader.[2]David Crisafulli won the ensuing leadership spill and was elected LNP leader on 12 November 2020.[3]

Palaszczuk became the first woman party leader to win three state elections in Australia,[4] as well as the first Queensland Premier to increase their party's seat total across three successive elections.[5]


Main articles: Results of the 2020 Queensland state election; Post-election pendulum for the 2020 Queensland state election; and Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 2020–2024
Legislative Assembly (IRV) – Turnout 87.9% (CV)[6][7]
Queensland Legislative Assembly 2020.svg
Party Votes % Swing Seats /–
  Labor 1,134,969 39.57 4.14 52 Increase 4
  Liberal National 1,029,442 35.89 2.20 34 Decrease 5
  Greens 271,514 9.47 −0.53 2 Increase 1
  One Nation 204,316 7.12 −6.60 1 Steady
  Katter's Australian 72,168 2.52 0.20 3 Steady
  Legalise Cannabis 26,146 0.91 0.91 0 Steady
  United Australia 17,904 0.62 0.62 0 Steady
  Informed Medical Options 17,546 0.61 0.61 0 Steady
  Animal Justice 9,703 0.34 0.34 0 Steady
  North Queensland First 5,616 0.20 0.20 0 Steady
  Civil Liberties and Motorists 5,207 0.18 −0.08[a] 0 Steady
  Shooters, Fishers, Farmers 2,801 0.10 0.10 0 Steady
  Independents 70,992 2.48 −2.10 1 Steady
 Formal votes 2,868,324 96.60 0.94
 Informal votes 101,023 3.40 −0.94
 Total 2,969,347
 Registered voters / turnout 3,377,476 87.92 0.39
Two-party-preferred vote[8]
Labor 1,524,766 53.2 Increase 1.9
Liberal National 1,343,558 46.8 Decrease 1.9

Vote summary

Popular vote
One Nation
Two-party preferred vote
Seats summary
One Nation

Seats changing parties

Six seats changed parties in this election.[9] Five seats changed from Liberal National to Labor,[10] while South Brisbane changed from Labor to the Greens.[11]

Seat Pre-election Swing Post-election
Party Member Margin Margin Member Party
Bundaberg Liberal National David Batt 4.2 4.2 0.01 Tom Smith Labor
Caloundra Liberal National Mark McArdle 3.4 5.9 2.5 Jason Hunt Labor
Hervey Bay Liberal National Ted Sorensen 9.1 11.1 2.0 Adrian Tantari Labor
Nicklin Liberal National Marty Hunt 5.3 5.4 0.1 Robert Skelton Labor
Pumicestone Liberal National Simone Wilson 0.8 6.1 5.3 Ali King Labor
South Brisbane Labor Jackie Trad 3.6 8.9 5.3 Amy MacMahon Greens
Whitsunday North Queensland First Jason Costigan 0.7* N/A 3.26 Amanda Camm Liberal National
Members in italics did not contest in this election.
* Jason Costigan was expelled from the LNP and formed the North Queensland First party in 2019. The margin shown here is the two-party margin Costigan achieved as an LNP candidate at the 2017 state election.

Post-election pendulum

Government seats
Bundaberg Tom Smith ALP 0.01
Nicklin Robert Skelton ALP 0.1
Hervey Bay Adrian Tantari ALP 2.0
Caloundra Jason Hunt ALP 2.5
Barron River Craig Crawford ALP 3.1
Townsville Scott Stewart ALP 3.1
Thuringowa Aaron Harper ALP 3.2
Redlands Kim Richards ALP 3.9
Mundingburra Les Walker ALP 3.9
Aspley Bart Mellish ALP 5.2
Pumicestone Ali King ALP 5.3
Cairns Michael Healy ALP 5.6
Keppel Brittany Lauga ALP 5.6
Fairly safe
Redcliffe Yvette D'Ath ALP 6.1
Cook Cynthia Lui ALP 6.3
Mackay Julieanne Gilbert ALP 6.7
Pine Rivers Nikki Boyd ALP 6.7
Mansfield Corrine McMillan ALP 6.8
Gaven Meaghan Scanlon ALP 7.8
Springwood Mick de Brenni ALP 8.3
Rockhampton Barry O'Rourke ALP 8.6
Macalister Melissa McMahon ALP 9.5
Capalaba Don Brown ALP 9.9
Cooper Jonty Bush ALP 10.5
Ferny Grove Mark Furner ALP 11.0
McConnel Grace Grace ALP 11.1
Murrumba Steven Miles ALP 11.3
Bulimba Di Farmer ALP 11.4
Maryborough Bruce Saunders ALP 11.9
Stafford Jimmy Sullivan ALP 11.9
Mulgrave Curtis Pitt ALP 12.2
Mount Ommaney Jess Pugh ALP 12.6
Bancroft Chris Whiting ALP 12.8
Kurwongbah Shane King ALP 13.1
Greenslopes Joe Kelly ALP 13.2
Logan Linus Power ALP 13.4
Lytton Joan Pease ALP 13.4
Miller Mark Bailey ALP 13.8
Ipswich West Jim Madden ALP 14.3
Toohey Peter Russo ALP 14.4
Stretton Duncan Pegg ALP 14.8
Nudgee Leanne Linard ALP 15.1
Waterford Shannon Fentiman ALP 16.0
Ipswich Jennifer Howard ALP 16.5
Morayfield Mark Ryan ALP 16.7
Jordan Charis Mullen ALP 17.1
Sandgate Stirling Hinchliffe ALP 17.3
Algester Leeanne Enoch ALP 17.8
Very safe
Bundamba Lance McCallum ALP v ONP 20.7
Gladstone Glenn Butcher ALP 23.5
Woodridge Cameron Dick ALP 26.2
Inala Annastacia Palaszczuk ALP 28.2
Non-government seats
Currumbin Laura Gerber LNP 0.5
Coomera Michael Crandon LNP 1.1
Burleigh Michael Hart LNP 1.2
Chatsworth Steve Minnikin LNP 1.3
Glass House Andrew Powell LNP 1.6
Clayfield Tim Nicholls LNP 1.6
Everton Tim Mander LNP 2.2
Whitsunday Amanda Camm LNP 3.3
Theodore Mark Boothman LNP 3.3
Moggill Christian Rowan LNP 3.6
Ninderry Dan Purdie LNP 4.1
Mermaid Beach Ray Stevens LNP 4.4
Oodgeroo Mark Robinson LNP 4.5
Buderim Brent Mickelberg LNP 5.3
Southport Rob Molhoek LNP 5.4
Fairly safe
Burdekin Dale Last LNP 7.0
Toowoomba North Trevor Watts LNP 7.3
Gympie Tony Perrett LNP 8.5
Maroochydore Fiona Simpson LNP 9.1
Kawana Jarrod Bleijie LNP 9.3
Bonney Sam O'Connor LNP 10.1
Mudgeeraba Ros Bates LNP 10.1
Toowoomba South David Janetzki LNP 10.2
Burnett Stephen Bennett LNP 10.8
Scenic Rim Jon Krause LNP 11.4
Lockyer Jim McDonald LNP 11.5
Nanango Deb Frecklington LNP 12.2
Southern Downs James Lister LNP 14.1
Callide Colin Boyce LNP 15.8
Surfers Paradise John-Paul Langbroek LNP 16.2
Broadwater David Crisafulli LNP 16.6
Gregory Lachlan Millar LNP 17.2
Condamine Pat Weir LNP 19.2
Very safe
Warrego Ann Leahy LNP 23.1
Crossbench seats
South Brisbane Amy MacMahon GRN v ALP 5.3
Maiwar Michael Berkman GRN v LNP 6.3
Mirani Stephen Andrew ONP v ALP 9.0
Hinchinbrook Nick Dametto KAP v LNP 14.8
Noosa Sandy Bolton IND v LNP 15.8
Hill Shane Knuth KAP v ALP 22.5
Traeger Robbie Katter KAP v ALP 24.7


Main articles: 2017 Queensland state election and Post-election pendulum for the 2017 Queensland state election

At the 2017 election, Labor won majority with 48 of 93 seats and formed government in the 56th Queensland Parliament. The LNP won 39 seats and formed opposition. Being allocated to crossbench, the Katter's Australian Party won three seats, One Nation won one seat, the Greens won one seat and Independent Sandy Bolton won the seat of Noosa.

Despite two by-elections, the composition of the 56th Parliament was unchanged, with the exception of the member for Whitsunday Jason Costigan. He was expelled from the LNP over allegations of behavioural impropriety, resulting in him joining the crossbench and eventually forming the North Queensland First party.

Labor has won all but one state election since 1989, and has only been out of government for five years since then. It lost its majority in 1996, giving way to a Coalition minority government that was defeated in 1998. In 2012, it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the state's history, but regained power in 2015.

This election also marks the first time that both leaders of the current government and opposition have been female in a Queensland state election.[12] It is only the second time it has occurred in an Australian state, territory or federal election, the first time being the 1995 ACT election.

A record number of minor parties and candidates ran in the election, 342 minor party candidates, 69 as independents or not officially endorsed by any party. Labor, the LNP and the Greens ran candidates in every electorate, Pauline Hanson's One Nation ran in 90 electorates.[13]

Electoral system

Queensland has compulsory voting and uses full-preference instant-runoff voting for single-member electorates. The election was conducted by the Electoral Commission of Queensland (ECQ).

Of the political parties contesting the election, the party, or coalition, that win the majority of seats (at least 47) forms the government.

The party, or coalition that gains the next highest number of seats forms the opposition, with the remaining parties and independents candidates being allocated to the cross bench.

Queensland Parliament is the only unicameral state parliament in Australia. It has just one House—the Legislative Assembly.

Key dates

The election was for all 93 members of the Legislative Assembly. Pursuant to Constitution (Fixed Term Parliament) Amendment Act 2015 Queensland has fixed terms, with all elections following the 2020 vote scheduled every four years on the last Saturday of October. The Governor may call an election earlier than scheduled if the Government does not maintain confidence, or the annual appropriation bill fails to pass.

Under the legislation, the caretaker period commenced on 5 October 2020, 26 days prior to the election date.[14]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, consideration was given to holding this election as a full postal ballot,[15] but this did not occur.[16] Despite this, a record number of postal votes was cast at the election, with a majority of Queenslanders voting before polling day.[16]

The election timetable is as follows:[17]

Date Event
6 October 2020 Queensland Parliament dissolved by Governor Paul de Jersey[18]
10 October 2020 Close of electoral rolls
11 October 2020 Close of nominations
19 October 2020 Early voting begins
30 October 2020 Early voting ends at 6 pm
31 October 2020 Polling day, between the hours of 8 am and 6 pm
10 November 2020 Last day for receipt of postal votes by 6 pm

Registered parties

Since the previous election, 2017, six political parties were registered by Queensland's Electoral Commission: Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party, North Queensland First, the Animal Justice Party, Clive Palmer's United Australia Party, Informed Medical Options Party, and Legalise Cannabis Queensland.

The following twelve registered parties contested the election, including a record number of minor parties:

  • Australian Labor Party (Queensland Branch)
  • Queensland Greens
  • Pauline Hanson's One Nation
  • Liberal National Party of Queensland
  • Katter's Australian Party
  • Civil Liberties & Motorists Party
  • Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party
  • North Queensland First
  • Animal Justice Party
  • Clive Palmer's United Australia Party
  • Informed Medical Options Party
  • Legalise Cannabis Qld (Party)[19]


The LNP confirmed it would preference Labor candidates last on all of its how-to-vote cards.[20] An exception is for Maiwar, a seat held by the Greens, where the LNP put the sitting Greens member below the Labor candidate in the how-to-vote card.[21]

In response to LNP's preferences, Katter's Australia Party announced it would preference Greens candidates last on its party's how-to-vote cards, with party leader Robbie Katter suggesting the LNP's decision would lead to Greens candidates winning a number of seats in Brisbane.[22] Katter's Australia Party and Pauline Hanson's One Nation also announced a preference deal on 8 October, with the parties to preference each other in second place on their how-to-vote cards.[23]

Labor confirmed it would preference One Nation last on how-to-vote cards.[21]

Retiring MPs


  • Kate Jones MP (Cooper) – announced 10 September 2020[24]
  • Anthony Lynham MP (Stafford) – announced 10 September 2020[25]
  • Coralee O'Rourke MP (Mundingburra) – announced 5 September 2020[26]

Liberal National

  • Mark McArdle MP (Caloundra) – announced retirement 27 June 2019[27]
  • Ted Sorensen MP (Hervey Bay) – announced retirement 25 May 2020[28]
  • Simone Wilson MP (Pumicestone) – announced retirement 27 September 2019[29]


Main article: Candidates of the 2020 Queensland state election

At the close of nominations on 11 October 2020, 597 candidates had nominated for the state election—the highest number of candidates at a Queensland state election, surpassing the previous record of 453 candidates at the 2017 election.[30]

Leaders' debates

The first leaders' debate of the campaign between Palaszczuk and Frecklington was a People's Forum hosted by Sky News and the Courier Mail and was held on 28 October.[31] The selected audience consisted of undecided voters who post-debate were asked which party they would vote for based on the debate performance of the respective leaders. A majority of 53% opted for Labor, 30% for the LNP, whilst the remaining 17% were undecided.[32]


Several research, media and polling firms conduct opinion polls during the parliamentary term and prior to the state election in relation to voting. Most firms use an estimate of the flow of preferences at the previous election to determine the two-party-preferred vote; others ask respondents to nominate preferences.

Graphical summary

Primary vote.
Two-party-preferred vote.
Aggregate data of voting intention from all opinion polling since the last state election. Local regression trends for each party are shown as solid lines.

Poll results

Legislative Assembly polling
Date Firm Primary vote 2pp vote
31 October 2020 election 39.6% 35.9% 9.5% 7.1% 7.9% 53.2% 46.8%
25–30 Oct 2020 Newspoll[33] 37% 36% 11% 10% 6% 51.5% 48.5%
12–15 Oct 2020 Roy Morgan[34] 36% 35% 10% 12% 7% 51% 49%
9–14 Oct 2020 Newspoll[35] 37% 37% 11% 9% 6% 52% 48%
24 Sep–1 Oct 2020 YouGov[36] 37% 37% 12% 9% 5% 52% 48%
30 July 2020 Newspoll[37] 34% 38% 12% 11% 5% 49% 51%
7 June 2020 YouGov[38] 32% 38% 12% 12% 6% 48% 52%
7 February 2020 YouGov[39] 34% 35% 10% 15% 6% 50% 50%
30 August 2019 YouGov[40] 32% 37% 13% 13% 5% 49% 51%
13–14 February 2019 YouGov[41] 35% 35% 11% 8% 11% 52% 48%
7–8 November 2018 YouGov[42] 36% 34% 11% 10% 9% 53% 47%
8–9 August 2018 YouGov[43] 35% 37% 11% 10% 7% 51% 49%
9–10 May 2018 YouGov[44] 38% 35% 10% 12% 5% 53% 47%
7–8 Feb 2018 YouGov[45] 37% 36% 10% 10% 7% 52% 48%
12 December 2017 Deb Frecklington becomes leader of the Liberal National Party and Leader of the Opposition
25 Nov 2017 election 35.4% 33.7% 10.0% 13.7% 7.2% 51.2% 48.8%
21–24 Nov 2017 Newspoll[46] 36% 34% 10% 13% 7% 52.5% 47.5%
24 Nov 2017 Galaxy[47] 37% 35% 9% 12% 7% 52% 48%
20 Nov 2017 ReachTEL[48] 34% 30% 10% 17% 9% 51% 49%
Better premier/approval polling
Date Firm Better premier Palaszczuk Frecklington
Palaszczuk Frecklington Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied
9–14 Oct 2020 Newspoll[49] 56% 32% 63% 33% 37% 44%
24 Sep–1 Oct 2020 YouGov[36] 48% 22% 57% 27% 29% 32%
21 September 2020 Newspoll[50] - - 63% 33% - -
30 July 2020 Newspoll[51] 57% 26% 64% 29% 34% 42%
12 June 2020 Liberal National Party[52] 42% 19% - - - -
7 June 2020 YouGov[39] 44% 23% 49% 33% 26% 29%
7 February 2020 YouGov[39] 34% 22% 29% 44% 23% 33%
30 August 2019 YouGov[53] 34% 29% 34% 45% 30% 30%
13–14 February 2019 YouGov[41] 47% 27% 48% 38% 31% 35%
7–8 November 2018 YouGov[42] 43% 26% 46% 37% 35% 29%
8–9 August 2018 YouGov[43] - - 41% 38% 31% 26%
9–10 May 2018 YouGov[44] 47% 27% 46% 38% 31% 28%
7–8 Feb 2018 YouGov[45] 42% 31% - - - -
12 December 2017 Deb Frecklington becomes leader of the Liberal National Party and Leader of the Opposition


  1. ^ Compared to 2017 election total of Consumer Rights, which was renamed to Civil Liberties and Motorists at the 2020 election.


  1. ^ a b Maasdorp, James (31 October 2020). "Labor to clinch government in Queensland election, expected to win required 47 seats as Annastacia Palaszczuk claims third term as Premier". ABC News. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  2. ^ Swanson, Tim (2 November 2020). "Queensland LNP leader Deb Frecklington stands down". ABC News. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  3. ^ Lynch, Lydia (12 November 2020). "LNP elects new leader and deputy while recount starts in two seats". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  4. ^ McKenna, Kate; Nothling, Lily (2 November 2020). "Annastacia Palaszczuk wins government in Queensland, making history". ABC News. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  5. ^ Lynch, Lydia (12 November 2020). "'We have to find a way to win': LNP to review election loss, policies". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  6. ^ "2020 State General Election Results". Electoral Commission of Queensland. July 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  7. ^ Green, Antony (13 November 2020). "QLD Election 2020 Results". ABC News. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  8. ^ Estimate by Antony Green: "Analysis of the 2020 Queensland Election Result". Antony Green's Election Blog. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  9. ^ "Changing Seats". Queensland Votes 2020. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  10. ^ Green, Antony. "2020 Queensland Election Updates". Antony Green's Election Blog. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  11. ^ "South Brisbane: Official Distribution of Preferences Count". Electoral Commission of Queensland. July 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  12. ^ "Why Queensland Labor and the LNP are both so keen to talk down minority government". ABC News. 5 October 2020. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  13. ^ "Record number of parties square up amid a 'fracturing' political landscape". 12 October 2020.
  14. ^ "Constitution (Fixed TermParliament) Amendment Act 2015". Queensland Government. 2015. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  15. ^ Election could be a full postal vote Archived 11 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine Seniors News 10 April 2020
  16. ^ a b Hamilton-Smith, Lexy (18 October 2020). "How a staggering number of postal votes could change the face of Queensland's election". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  17. ^ "2020 State General Election". Electoral Commission of Queensland. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  18. ^ Silk, Marty (6 October 2020). "Qld parliament dissolved ahead of election". The West Australian.
  19. ^ "Record number of parties square up amid a 'fracturing' political landscape". 12 October 2020.
  20. ^ Zillman, Stephanie (6 October 2020). "LNP to put Labor last in its Queensland election preferences, elevating the Greens". ABC News. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  21. ^ a b "Labor's Queensland election candidates warned to toe party line on preferences after photos show signs saying 'put the LNP last'". ABC News. 20 October 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  22. ^ McKay, Jack (25 September 2020). "Robbie Katter appeals to LNP to preference Greens last". Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  23. ^ Barry, Derek (8 October 2020). "KAP and One Nation strike preference deal in Queensland election". North West Star. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  24. ^ Lynch, Lydia (10 September 2020). "Kate Jones becomes third Queensland Labor minister to call time". Brisbane Times. Archived from the original on 10 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  25. ^ Lynch, Lydia (10 September 2020). "Mines Minister Anthony Lynham will not contest his seat at election". Brisbane Times. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  26. ^ Stone, Lucy (5 September 2020). "Minister Coralie O'Rourke announces she will not contest election". Brisbane Times. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  27. ^ Lynch, Lydia (28 June 2019). "Sunshine Coast MP to stand down at next election for younger blood". Brisbane Times. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  28. ^ Lynch, Lydia (25 May 2020). "LNP's Ted Sorensen to retire after 26 years in local and state politics". Brisbane Times. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  29. ^ "Member for Pumicestone Simone Wilson not to recontest in the next state election to be held October 2020". 1015 FM. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
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  47. ^ "Queensland Election 2017 galaxy poll predicts win for Labor and Premier Annastacia Palaszcuk". The Courier Mail. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  48. ^ "Labor leads LNP by 2 points in Qld: Poll". Sky News. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  49. ^ Bowe, William (16 October 2020). "Newspoll: 52-48 to Labor in Queensland". The Poll Bludger. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  50. ^ "Majority support strict qld border lockdowns". The Australian. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020.
  51. ^ "Popular Queensland Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk but poll party postponed". The Australian.
  52. ^ Wardill, Steven (2020). "Deb Frecklington trails Annastacia Palaszczuk in popularity contest: LNP polling". Courier Mail. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  53. ^ "YouGov Galaxy: 51–49 to State LNP in Queensland". Poll Bludger. 30 August 2019. Archived from the original on 24 December 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.

External links

  • 2020 State General Election (Electoral Commission Queensland)
  • Queensland Votes (ABC News)
Retrieved from ""
Voter suppression in the United States

03-01-2022 · Efforts used to prevent eligible voters from exercising their right to vote This article has multiple issues. Please help

Efforts used to prevent eligible voters from exercising their right to vote
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Voter suppression in the United States is various legal and illegal efforts to prevent eligible voters from exercising their right to vote. Where found, such voter suppression efforts vary by state, local government, precinct, and election. Separately, there have also been various efforts to enfranchise and disenfranchise various voters in the country, which concern whether or not people are eligible to vote in the first place.

Voter suppression has historically been used for racial discrimination. Before and during the American Civil War, African-Americans had not been able to vote. After the Civil War, all African-Americans were granted voting rights, forcing Southern Democrats and former Confederate states to institute actions such as poll taxes or language tests that were ostensibly non-racist as not to directly contradict the Constitution.[1]Democrats used fraud and intimidation via militias like the Ku Klux Klan to limit Black voting in the 20th century, and achieved single-party rule for decades after using voter registration laws to disenfranchise many African-Americans and poor whites.[2] Following the loss of Donald Trump in the 2020 presidential elections, Republicans have passed or attempted to pass many laws restricting voter access, and have received condemnation and accusations of engaging in voter suppression.[3][4] According to the Brennan Center for Justice, as of March 24, 2021, more than 361 bills that would restrict voting access have been introduced in 47 states.[5][6]



The passage of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870 guaranteed the right to vote to men of all races, including former slaves. Initially, this resulted in high voter turnout among African-Americans in the South. In the 1880 United States presidential election, a majority of eligible African-American voters cast a ballot in every Southern state except for two. In eight Southern states, Black turnout was equal to or greater than White turnout. At the end of the Reconstruction era, Southern states began implementing policies to suppress Black voters.[7] After 1890, less than 9,000 of Mississippi's 147,000 eligible African-American voters were registered to vote, or about 6%. Louisiana went from 130,000 registered African-American voters in 1896 to 1,342 in 1904 (about a 99% decrease).[8]

Poll taxes

Poll taxes were used to disenfranchise voters, particularly African-Americans and poor whites in the South.[9] Poll taxes started in the 1890s, requiring eligible voters to pay a fee before casting a ballot. Some poor whites were grandfathered in if they had an ancestor who voted before the Civil War era. This meant that they were exempt from paying the tax.[10] Eleven Southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia), as well as several outside the South, imposed poll taxes. The poll tax mechanism varied on a state-by-state basis; in Alabama, the poll tax was cumulative, meaning that a man had to pay all poll taxes due from the age of twenty-one onward in order to vote. In other states, poll taxes had to be paid for several years before being eligible to vote. Enforcement of poll tax laws was patchy. Election officials had the discretion whether or not to ask for a voter's poll tax receipt.[8]

The constitutionality of the poll tax was upheld by the Supreme Court in the 1937 Breedlove v. Suttles and again affirmed in 1951 by a federal court in Butler v. Thompson.[8] Poll taxes began to wane in popularity despite judicial affirmations, with five Southern states keeping poll taxes by 1962 (Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia).[8] The poll tax was officially prohibited in 1964 by the Twenty-fourth Amendment.[10]

Literacy tests

Like poll taxes, literacy tests were primarily used to disenfranchise poor or African-American voters in the South.[9] African-American literacy rates lagged behind White literacy rates until 1940. Literacy tests were applied unevenly: property owners were often exempt, as well as those who would have had the right to vote (or whose ancestors had the right to vote) in 1867, which was before the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment. Some states exempted veterans of the Civil War from tests. Literacy tests varied in difficulty, with African-Americans often given more rigorous tests. In Macon County, Alabama in the late 1950s, for example, at least twelve whites who had not finished elementary school passed the literacy test, while several college-educated African-Americans were failed. Literacy tests were prevalent outside the South as well, as they were seen as keeping society's undesirables (the poor, immigrants, or the uninformed) from voting; twenty states still had literacy tests after World War II, including seven Southern states, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York. A 1970 Amendment to the Voting Rights Act prohibited the use of literacy tests for determining voting eligibility.[7]


Purging of voter rolls

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In 1998, Florida created the Florida Central Voter File to combat vote fraud documented in the 1997 Miami mayoral election. Many people were purged from voter registration lists in Florida because their names were similar to those of convicted felons, who were not allowed to vote at that time under Florida law. According to the Palm Beach Post, African-Americans accounted for 88% of those removed from the rolls but were only about 11% of Florida's voters. However, according to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, nearly 89% of felons convicted in Florida are black; therefore, a purge of convicted felons could be expected to include a disproportionately high number of blacks. The Post added that "a review of state records, internal e-mails of DBT employees and testimony before the civil rights commission and an elections task force showed no evidence that minorities were specifically targeted".[11]

Between November 2015 and early 2016, over 120,000 voters were dropped from rolls in Brooklyn, New York.[12] Officials have stated that the purge was a mistake and that those dropped represented a "broad cross-section" of the electorate. However, an WNYC analysis found that the purge had disproportionately affected majority-Hispanic districts. The board announced that it would reinstate all voters in time for the 2016 congressional primary.[13] The Board of Elections subsequently suspended the Republican appointee in connection to the purge, but kept on her Democratic counterpart.[14]

In 2008, more than 98,000 registered Georgia voters were removed from the roll of voters because of discrepancies in computer records of their identification information. Some 4,500 voters had to prove their citizenship to regain their right to vote.

Georgia was challenged[when?] for requesting more Social Security-based verifications than any other state—about 2 million voters in total. An attorney involved in the lawsuit said that since the letters were mailed within 90 days of the election, Georgia violated federal law. The director of the American Civil Liberty Union's Georgia Voting Rights Project said, "They are systematically using these lists and matching them and using those matches to send these letters out to voters. They're using a systematic purging procedure that's expressly prohibited by federal laws, if people who are properly eligible are getting improperly challenged and purged. Elise Shore, a regional attorney for the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), agreed the letters appear to violate two federal laws against voter purging within 90 days of the election. People are being targeted, and people are being told they are non-citizens, including both naturalized citizens and U.S.-born citizens," said Shore. "They're being told they're not eligible to vote, based on information in a database that hasn't been checked and approved by the Department of Justice (DOJ), and that we know has flaws in it." Secretary of State Karen Handel denied that the removal of voters' names was an instance of voter suppression.[15][needs update]

In 2019, presiding circuit court Judge Paul V. Malloy of Ozaukee County, Wisconsin, removed 234,000 voters from the statewide rolls, ruling that state law compelled him to do so.[16]

Limitations on early and absentee voting

In North Carolina, Republican lawmakers requested data on various voting practices, broken down by race. They then passed laws that restricted voting and registration many ways that disproportionately affected African Americans, including cutting back on early voting.[17][18] In a 2016 appellate court case, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit struck down a law that removed the first week of early voting. The court held that the GOP used the data they gathered to remove the first week of early voting because more African American voters voted during that week, and African American voters were more likely to vote for Democrats.[19] Between 2008 and 2012 in North Carolina, 70% of African American voters voted early.[20] After cuts to early voting, African American turnout in early voting was down by 8.7% (around 66,000 votes) in North Carolina.[21][22]

As of 2020, Georgia requires absentee voters to provide their own postage for their ballots. On April 8, 2020, the ACLU filed a lawsuit challenging this rule, claiming it "is tantamount to a poll tax."[23]

Voting procedure disinformation

Voting procedure disinformation involves giving voters false information about when and how to vote, leading them to fail to cast valid ballots.

For example, in recall elections for the Wisconsin State Senate in 2011, Americans for Prosperity, a conservative political advocacy group founded in 2004 by brothers Charles and David Koch to support Republican candidates and causes in the United States,[24] sent many Democratic voters a mailing that gave an incorrect deadline for returning absentee ballots. Voters who relied on the deadline in the mailing could have sent in their ballots too late for them to be counted.[25] The organization claimed that it was caused by a typographical error.[26]

Just prior to the 2018 elections, The New York Times warned readers of numerous types of deliberate misinformation, sometimes targeting specific voter demographics. These types of disinformation included false information about casting ballots online by email and by text message, the circulation of doctored photographs in 2016 which claimed Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents were arresting voters at polling places and included threatening language meant to intimidate Latino voters, polling place hoaxes, disinformation on remote voting options, suspicious texts, voting machine malfunction rumors, misleading photos and videos, and false voter fraud allegations. The Times added that messages purportedly sent by Trump to voters in Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, and Georgia were actually disseminated from Republican organizations. In 2018, Trump actually spread information about defective machines in a single Utah county, giving the impression that such difficulties were occurring nationwide.[27]

Caging lists

Main article: Voter caging

Caging lists have been used by political parties to eliminate potential voters registered with other political parties. A political party sends registered mail to addresses of registered voters. If the mail is returned as undeliverable, the mailing organization uses that fact to challenge the registration, arguing that because the voter could not be reached at the address, the registration is fraudulent.[28]

Identification requirements

Further information: Voter identification laws in the United States

Some states have imposed photo ID requirements, which critics claim are intended to depress the turnout of minority voters. It has been explored whether or not photo ID laws disproportionately affect non-white voters and those of lower income: 8% of White Americans lack driver's licenses, for example, compared to 25% of African-American citizens.[29] For driver's licenses that are unexpired where the stated address and name exactly match the voter registration record, 16% of White Americans lack a valid license, compared to 27% of Latinos and 37% for African Americans.[9] In July 2016, a federal appeals court found that a 2011 Texas voter ID law discriminated against black and Hispanic voters because only a few types of ID were allowed; for example, military IDs and concealed carry permits were allowed, but state employee photo IDs and university photo IDs were not.[30] In August 2017, an updated version of the same Texas voter ID law was found unconstitutional in federal district court; the district judge indicated that one potential remedy for the discrimination would be to order Texas election-related laws to be pre-cleared by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ).[31] The court also ruled that the law would force some voters to spend money traveling to a government office to update their identification information; the court compared this provision to a poll tax.[32]

During the 21st century, Wisconsin and North Carolina – states with Republican-controlled governments – passed laws that restrict the ability of people to vote using student ID cards for identification. This is likely motivated by the fact that students tend to be more liberal than the general population.[33]

A 2019 paper by University of Bologna and Harvard Business School economists found that voter ID laws had "no negative effect on registration or turnout, overall or for any group defined by race, gender, age, or party affiliation."[34] A 2019 study in the journal Electoral Studies found that the implementation of voter ID laws in South Carolina reduced overall turnout but did not have a disparate impact.[35] 2019 studies in Political Science Quarterly and the Atlantic Economic Journal found no evidence that voter ID laws have a disproportionate influence on minorities,[36][37] while other studies show differently.[38] These claims are contradicted by the "Findings of fact and conclusions of law" in Fish v. Kobach: In that case, Judge Julie Robinson, who had been appointed to the bench by President George W. Bush, a Republican, noted that the Kansas Documentary Proof of Citizenship law illegally denied 12.4% of new voter registration applications, over 31,000 US citizens, during the period covered by data considered in that case.

Historical examples

1838 Gallatin County Election Day Battle

Main article: 1838 Mormon War § Gallatin County Election Day Battle

William Peniston, a candidate for the Missouri state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons[39] and warned them not to vote in the election.[40] Reminding Daviess County residents of the growing electoral power of the Mormon community, Peniston made a speech in Gallatin claiming that if the Missourians "suffer such men as these [Mormons] to vote, you will soon lose your suffrage." Around 200 non-Mormons gathered in Gallatin on election day to prevent Mormons from voting.[41]

When about 30 Latter Day Saints approached the polling place, a Missourian named Dick Weldon declared that Mormons were not allowed to vote in Clay County. One of the Mormons present, Samuel Brown, claimed that Peniston's statements were false and then declared his intention to vote. This triggered a brawl between the bystanders.[39] The Mormons called upon the Danites, a Mormon vigilante group,[41] and the Missourians left the scene to obtain guns and ammunition and swore to kill the Mormons.[40]

Rumors among both parties spread that there were casualties in the conflict. When Joseph Smith and volunteers rode to Adam-ondi-Ahman to assess the situation, they discovered there were no truths to the rumors.[40][42]

Jim Crow laws

Main article: Jim Crow laws
Part of a series on the
Nadir of American
race relations
Le Petit Journal 7 Oct 1906 (cropped).jpg
Violence in the 1906 Atlanta race riot
Historical background
  • Reconstruction era
  • Voter suppression
    • Disenfranchisement
  • Redeemers
  • Compromise of 1877
  • Jim Crow laws
    • Segregation
    • Anti-miscegenation laws
  • Convict leasing
Common actions
  • Expulsions of African Americans
  • Lynchings
    • Lynching postcards
  • Sundown town
  • Whitecapping
Vigilante groups
  • Black Legion
  • Indiana White Caps
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • Red Shirts
  • Michael Green
  • Nevlin Porter and Johnson Spencer
  • Eliza Woods
  • Amos Miller
  • George Meadows
  • Joe Vermillion
  • Jim Taylor
  • Joe Coe
  • People's Grocery
  • Ephraim Grizzard
  • Alfred Blount
  • Samuel J. Bush
  • Stephen Williams
  • Frazier B. Baker and Julia Baker
  • John Henry James
  • Sam Hose
  • David Wyatt
  • Marie Thompson
  • Watkinsville
  • Ed Johnson
  • William Burns
  • Walker family
  • Laura and L. D. Nelson
  • King Johnson
  • John Evans
  • Jesse Washington
  • Newberry Six
  • Anthony Crawford
  • Ell Persons
  • Jim McIlherron
  • George Taylor
  • 1920 Duluth
  • James Harvey and Joe Jordan
Massacres and riots
  • Opelousas massacre
  • Rock Springs massacre
  • Thibodaux massacre
  • Spring Valley Race Riot of 1895
  • Phoenix election riot
  • Wilmington insurrection of 1898
  • Pana riot
  • Robert Charles riots
  • Evansville race riot
  • Atlanta Massacre of 1906
  • Springfield race riot of 1908
  • Johnson–Jeffries riots
  • 1912 racial conflict in Forsyth County
  • 1917 Chester race riot
  • East St. Louis riots
  • Elaine massacre
  • Red Summer
  • Chicago race riot of 1919
  • Washington race riot of 1919
  • Ocoee massacre
  • Tulsa race massacre
  • Perry race riot
  • Rosewood massacre
  • Anti-lynching movement
  • Exodusters movement
  • Great Migration
  • Back to Africa movement
Related topics
  • Black genocide
  • Civil rights movement (1865–1896)
  • Civil rights movement (1896–1954)
  • Mass racial violence in the United States
  • v
  • t
  • e

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.[43] All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period.[44] The laws were enforced until 1965.[45] The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these statutes became known as Jim Crow laws.[46]

During the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U.S. South for freedmen, the African Americans who had formerly been slaves, and the minority of blacks who had been free before the war. In the 1870s, Democrats gradually regained power in the Southern legislatures,[47] having used insurgent paramilitary groups, such as the White League and the Red Shirts, to disrupt Republican organizing, run Republican officeholders out of town, and intimidate blacks to suppress their voting.[48]

In 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election (a corrupt bargain) resulted in the government's withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained political power in every Southern state.[49]

Blacks were still elected to local offices throughout the 1880s, but their voting was suppressed for state and national elections. Democrats passed laws to make voter registration and electoral rules more restrictive, with the result that political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease.[50][51] Between 1890 and 1910, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, starting with Mississippi, passed new constitutions or amendments that effectively disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites through a combination of poll taxes, literacy and comprehension tests, and residency and record-keeping requirements.[50][51]

Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures. In Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the state's population. By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0.5% of eligible black men. "In 27 of the state's 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer; in 9 more parishes, only one black voter was."[52] The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that black voters were completely eliminated from voter rolls during the period from 1896 to 1904. The growth of their thriving middle class was slowed. In North Carolina and other Southern states, blacks suffered from being made invisible in the political system: "[W]ithin a decade of disfranchisement, the white supremacy campaign had erased the image of the black middle class from the minds of white North Carolinians."[52] In Alabama tens of thousands of poor whites were also disenfranchised, although initially legislators had promised them they would not be affected adversely by the new restrictions.[53]

In some cases, progressive measures ostensibly intended to reduce election fraud, such as the Eight Box Law in South Carolina, acted against black and white voters who were illiterate, as they could not follow the directions.[54] While the separation of African Americans from the white general population was becoming legalized and formalized during the Progressive Era (1890s–1920s), it was also becoming customary. For instance, even in cases in which Jim Crow laws did not expressly forbid black people to participate in sports or recreation, a segregated culture had become common.[46]

The Voting Rights Act of 1965, passed by huge bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress and signed by President Lyndon Johnson, aimed to end these practices.[55] A key provision of the act required that states with a history of disenfranchising black voters, namely those in the Jim Crow South, submit to the Department of Justice for "pre-clearance" any proposed changes to state voting laws. This provision was overturned by the Supreme Court in the case of Shelby County v. Holder (2013).[56] In her dissenting opinion, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg argued, “Throwing out preclearance when it has worked and is continuing to work to stop discriminatory changes is like throwing away your umbrella in a rainstorm because you are not getting wet."[57]


See also: Voter caging and Ballot Security Task Force

In 1980, Republican Christian Conservative leader Paul Weyrich said, "I don't want everybody to vote. ... our leverage in the elections ... goes up as the voting populace goes down."

In 1981 and 1986, the Republican National Committee (RNC) sent out letters to African-American neighborhoods. When tens of thousands of them were returned undeliverable, the party successfully challenged the voters and had them deleted from voting rolls. The violation of the Voting Rights Act got the RNC taken to court by the Democratic National Committee (DNC). As a result of the case, the RNC entered a consent decree, which prohibited the party from engaging in anti-fraud initiatives that targeted minorities from conducting mail campaigns to "compile voter challenge lists."[58]

Modern examples

2002 New Hampshire Senate election phone jamming scandal

In the 2002 New Hampshire Senate election phone jamming scandal, Republican officials attempted to reduce the number of Democratic voters by paying professional telemarketers in Idaho to make repeated hang-up calls to the telephone numbers used by the Democratic Party's ride-to-the-polls phone lines on election day. By tying up the lines, voters seeking rides from the Democratic Party would have more difficulty reaching the party to ask for transportation to and from their polling places.[59][60]

2004 presidential election

Allegations surfaced in several states that a private group, Voters Outreach of America, which had been empowered by the individual states, had collected and submitted Republican voter registration forms while inappropriately discarding voter registration forms where the new voter had chosen to register with the Democratic Party. Such people would believe they had registered to vote, and would only discover on election day that they were not registered and could not cast a ballot.[61][62][63][64][needs update]

Michigan Republican state legislator John Pappageorge was quoted as saying, "If we do not suppress the Detroit vote, we're going to have a tough time in this election."[65]

In 2006, four employees of candidate John Kerry's campaign were convicted of slashing the tires of 25 vans rented by the Wisconsin state Republican Party which were to be used for driving Republican voters and monitors to the polls on Election Day 2004. They received jail terms of four to six months. At the campaign workers' sentencing, Judge Michael B. Brennan told the defendants, "Voter suppression has no place in our country. Your crime took away that right to vote for some citizens."[66][67]

2006 Virginia Senate election

During the Virginia U.S. Senate election, Secretary of the Virginia State Board of Elections Jean Jensen concluded that incidents of voter suppression appeared widespread and deliberate. Documented incidents of voter suppression include:[68]

  • Democratic voters receiving calls incorrectly informing them voting will lead to arrest.
  • Widespread calls fraudulently claiming to be "[Democratic Senate candidate Jim] Webb Volunteers," falsely telling voters their voting location had changed.
  • Fliers paid for by the Republican Party, stating "SKIP THIS ELECTION" that allegedly attempted to suppress African-American turnout.

The FBI has since launched an investigation into the suppression attempts.[69][clarification needed] Despite the allegations, Democrat Jim Webb narrowly defeated incumbent George Allen.[70]

2008 presidential election


On September 16, 2008, attorneys for then-Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama announced their intention to seek an injunction to stop an alleged caging scheme in Michigan. It was alleged that the Michigan Republican Party used home foreclosure lists to challenge voters who used their foreclosed homes as their primary addresses at the polls.[71][72] Michigan GOP officials called the suit "desperate".[73] The Democratic party eventually dropped the case, instead accepting a non-legally binding public agreement from the Michigan GOP to not engage in foreclosure-based voter challenges.[74]

On October 30, 2008, a federal appeals court ordered the reinstatement of 5,500 voters wrongly purged from the voter rolls by the state, in response to an ACLU of Michigan lawsuit which questioned the legality of a Michigan state law requiring local clerks to nullify the registrations of newly registered voters whenever their voter identification cards are returned by the post office as undeliverable.[75]


The conservative nonprofit Minnesota Majority reportedly made phone calls claiming that the Minnesota Secretary of State had concerns about the validity of voters' registration. Their actions were referred to the Ramsey County attorney's office.[76][needs update]


Main article: New Black Panther Party voter intimidation case

On Election Day 2008, at a polling station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, two members of the New Black Panther Party (NBPP)—Minister King Samir Shabazz and Jerry Jackson—stood in front of the entrance to a polling station in uniforms that have been described as military or paramilitary.[77][78][79] Shabazz carried a billy club, and was reported to have pointed it at voters and shouted racial slurs,[80] including phrases such as "white devil" and "you're about to be ruled by the black man, cracker".[81] The incident drew the attention of police, who around 10:00 am, sent Shabazz away, in part because of his billy club. Jackson was allowed to stay because he was a certified poll watcher and was not accused of intimidation.[82][83]Stephen Robert Morse, upon arriving at the scene, filmed Shabazz.[84] The incident gained national attention after the video was uploaded to YouTube and went viral with over a million views.[85][86] The Philadelphia incident became known as the New Black Panther Party voter intimidation case.[87][88][89]

No complaints were filed by voters about the incident, though poll watchers witnessed some voters approach the polls and then turn away, apparently in response to the NBPP members.[90] Nevertheless, the Bush administration's Department of Justice (DOJ) became aware of the incident and started an inquiry. In January 2009, less than two weeks before the Bush Administration left office, Christopher Coates of the DOJ's Civil Rights Division filed a civil suit under the Voting Rights Act against four defendants, including Shabazz.[91][82] There was no evidence that Shabazz's actions were directed or incited by the party or its national leader.[92] Although none of the defendants challenged the lawsuit, the Obama administration dropped its claims against all but Shabazz in May 2009.[93][94]

In response to the controversy, the NBPP suspended its Philadelphia chapter and repudiated Minister King Shabazz in a posting at its website.[95] In December 2010, the Civil Rights Commission released a report concluding that their investigations had uncovered "numerous specific examples of open hostility and opposition" within the Obama DOJ to pursue cases in which whites were victims. The report accused the DOJ of failing to cooperate with investigations into its reason for dropping the case.[96]


The Republican Party attempted to have all 60,000 voters in the heavily Democratic city of Milwaukee who had registered since January 1, 2006 deleted from the voter rolls. The requests were rejected by the Milwaukee Election Commission, although Republican commissioner Bob Spindell voted in favor of deletion.[97]

2010 Maryland gubernatorial election

In the Maryland gubernatorial election in 2010, the campaign of Republican candidate Bob Ehrlich hired a consultant who advised that "the first and most desired outcome is voter suppression", in the form of having "African-American voters stay home."[98] To that end, the Republicans placed thousands of Election Day robocalls to Democratic voters, telling them that the Democratic candidate, Martin O'Malley, had won, although in fact the polls were still open for some two more hours.[99] The Republicans' call, worded to seem as if it came from Democrats, told the voters, "Relax. Everything's fine. The only thing left is to watch it on TV tonight."[98] The calls reached 112,000 voters in majority-African American areas.[99] In 2011, Ehrlich's campaign manager, Paul Schurick, was convicted of fraud and other charges because of the calls.[98][99] In 2012, he was sentenced to 30 days of home detention, a one-year suspended jail sentence, and 500 hours of community service over the four years of his probation, with no fine or jail time.[100][101] The Democratic candidate won by a margin of more than 10 percent.[102]

2015 early voting controversy in Maryland

In Maryland's Montgomery County, Republicans planned to move two early-voting sites from densely populated Bethesda and Burtonsville to more sparsely populated areas in Brookeville and Potomac. They claimed to be aiming for more "geographic diversity"; Democrats accused them of trying to suppress the vote. The Burtonsville site had the most minority voters of all the early-voting sites in the county, while the proposed new locations were in more Republican-friendly areas with fewer minority residents.[103] The Republican election board chairman admitted at a County Council committee that he and two GOP colleagues held a conference call with the chairman of Montgomery's Republican Party Central Committee. They said the call, from which Democrats were excluded, was legal. Democrats called it a violation of Maryland's Open Meetings Act. Todd Eberly, a political science professor from Saint Mary's College, called the claim by the Republicans, "a stupid defense."[103]

2016 presidential election

Further information: United States presidential election, 2016

The 2016 presidential election was the first in 50 years without all the protections of the original Voting Rights Act.[vague] Fourteen states had new voting restrictions in place, including swing states such as Virginia and Wisconsin.[104][105][106][107]


In early 2016, a state judge struck down a law requiring voters to show proof of citizenship in cases where the voter had used a national voter registration form. In May, a federal judge ordered the state of Kansas to begin registering approximately 18,000 voters whose registrations had been delayed because they had not shown proof of citizenship. Kansas secretary of state Kris Kobach ordered that the voters be registered, but not for state and local elections. In July, a county judge struck down Kobach's order. Kobach has been repeatedly sued by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) for allegedly trying to restrict voting rights in Kansas.[108][109]

In particular, Fish v. Kobach was filed in 2016 and heard in the United States District Court for the District of Kansas in 2018 by Chief District Judge Julie A. Robinson; she had been appointed to the bench by President George W. Bush, a Republican. She found that Kobach's Documentary Proof of Citizenship law had illegally refused to accept 12.4% of new voter registration applications by US citizens while it was in effect, over 31,000 people, to protect the "integrity" of elections from the threat of votes by 39 non-citizens who had registered to vote. Moreover, the "voting rate among purported noncitizen registrations on [a Kansas temporary drivers license] match list is around 1%, whereas the voting rate among registrants in Kansas more generally is around 70%." She also noted that Hans von Spakovsky, whom Kobach called as an expert witness, had made multiple misleading statements, including claiming that a U.S. GAO study 'found that up to 3 percent of the 30,000 individuals called for jury duty from voter registration roles over a two-year period in just one U.S. district court were not U.S. citizens.' On cross-examination, however, he acknowledged that the GAO study contained information on 8 district courts, 4 of which had reported zero non-citizen called for jury duty, and the other 3 reported that less than 1% of those called for jury duty from voter rolls were noncitizens.

North Carolina

In 2013, the state House passed a bill that requires voters to show a photo ID issued by North Carolina, a passport, or a military identification card to begin in 2016. Out-of-state drivers licenses were to be accepted only if the voter registered within 90 days of the election, and university photo identification was not acceptable.[110] In July 2016, a three-judge panel of the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a trial court decision in a number of consolidated actions and struck down the law's photo ID requirement, finding that the new voting provisions targeted African Americans "with almost surgical precision," and that the legislators had acted with clear "discriminatory intent" in enacting strict election rules, shaping the rules based on data they received about African-American registration and voting patterns.[111][112] On May 15, 2017, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to review the Appeals Court ruling.[113]

North Dakota

See also: 2018 United States Senate election in North Dakota § Voter ID law and Native Americans disenfranchisement

North Dakota abolished voter registration in 1951 for state and federal elections, the only state to do so.[114] It has since 2004 required voters to produce an approved form of ID before being able to vote, one of which was a tribe ID commonly used by Native Americans. However, it was common and lawful for a post office box to be used on this ID instead of a residential address. This has led to North Dakota being accused of voter suppression because many Native American were being denied a vote because they did not have an approved form of ID with a residential address.[115]

North Dakota's ID law especially adversely affected large numbers of Native Americans, with almost a quarter of Native Americans in the state, otherwise eligible to vote, being denied a vote on the basis that they do not have proper ID; compared to 12% of non-Indians. A judge overturned the ID law in July 2016, also saying: "The undisputed evidence before the Court reveals that voter fraud in North Dakota has been virtually non-existent."[109] However, the denial of a vote on this basis was also an issue in the 2018 mid-term election.[115]

In the run-up to North Dakota's election for U.S. Senate in 2018, state lawmakers implemented changes to voter identification rules, citing nine "suspected" double voting cases. Under the new rules, voter IDs had to include a residential address, rather than a post office box. The change led to rebuke and lawsuits from Native American voters on a Turtle Mountain Chippewa reservation, as well as claims of partisanship from then-Senator Heidi Heitkamp, a Democrat, as the law was championed by Republican state representatives. The voters claimed discrimination, and in legal filings cited a survey that indicated 18% of Native Americans lacked a valid ID due to the new street address requirement, while the requirement only affected 10.9% of non-Natives. The survey pinned the discrepancy on higher poverty rates and lower transportation access in areas with higher proportions of Native Americans. The legal battle quickly rose to national attention.[116] While former Attorney General Eric Holder called the rule "nothing more than voter suppression", North Dakota House Majority Leader Republican Al Carlson, who sponsored the law, said "Our attempt was never to disenfranchise anybody. From a legislative standpoint, we wanted the integrity ... in the ballots, but we also want to have anybody that wants to vote that is a legal citizen be able to identify where they live and be able to vote."[117] Ultimately, the legal battle ended when the Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal in November 2018, which effectively left the rule in place.[118] In July 2019, the ID law was judged to be constitutional.[119] A settlement of the dispute was reached in February 2020.[115]


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Since 1994, Ohio has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from the rolls. In April 2016, a lawsuit was filed, challenging this policy on the grounds that it violated the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA)[120] and the Help America Vote Act of 2002.[121] In June, the federal district court ruled for the plaintiffs, and entered a preliminary injunction applicable only to the November 2016 election. The preliminary injunction was upheld in September by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election.[120]


Wisconsin has enforced a photo ID law for all elections since April 7, 2015.[122] A federal judge found that Wisconsin's restrictive voter ID law led to "real incidents of disenfranchisement, which undermine rather than enhance confidence in elections, particularly in minority communities"; and, given that there was no evidence of widespread voter impersonation in Wisconsin, found that the law was "a cure worse than the disease." In addition to imposing strict voter ID requirements, the law cut back on early voting, required people to live in a ward for at least 28 days before voting, and prohibited emailing absentee ballots to voters.[109] A study by Priorities USA, a progressive advocacy group, estimates that strict ID laws in Wisconsin led to a significant decrease in voter turnout in 2016, with a disproportionate effect on African-American and Democratic-leaning voters.[123][124]


Election Integrity Commission and Crosscheck

Main article: Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity

In May 2017, President Donald Trump established the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity, purportedly for the purpose of preventing voter fraud. Critics have suggested its true purpose is voter suppression. The commission was led by Kansas attorney general and Republican gubernatorial nominee Kris Kobach, a staunch advocate of strict voter ID laws and a proponent of the Crosscheck system. Crosscheck is a national database designed to check for voters who are registered in more than one state by comparing names and dates of birth. Researchers at Stanford University, the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University, and Microsoft found that for every legitimate instance of double registration it finds, Crosscheck's algorithm returns approximately 200 false positives.[125] Kobach has been repeatedly sued by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and other civil rights organizations for trying to restrict voting rights in Kansas.[108] On February 20, 2016, while speaking to a committee of Kansas 2nd Congressional District delegates, regarding their challenges of the proof-of-citizenship voting law he championed in 2011, Kobach said, "The ACLU and their fellow communist friends, the League of Women Voters—you can quote me on that, the communist League of Women Voters — the ACLU and the communist League of Women Voters sued".[126]

Often, voter fraud is cited as a justification for such measures, even when the incidence of voter fraud is low. In Iowa, lawmakers passed a strict voter ID law with the potential to disenfranchise 260,000 voters. Out of 1.6 million votes cast in Iowa in 2016, there were only 10 allegations of voter fraud; none were cases of impersonation that a voter ID law could have prevented. Only one person, a Republican voter, was convicted. Iowa Secretary of State Paul Pate, the architect of the bill, admitted, "We've not experienced widespread voter fraud in Iowa."[127]


Alabama HB 56, an anti-illegal-immigration bill co-authored by Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach and passed in 2011, required proof of citizenship to be presented by voters on Election Day.[128] Much of the law was invalidated on appeal at various levels of appeals courts or voluntarily withdrawn or reworded.[129][130][131]

In its 2014 Shelby County v. Holder decision, the Supreme Court of the United States allowed jurisdictions with a history of suppression of minority voters to avoid continuing to abide by federal preclearance requirements for changes in voter registration and casting of ballots. Within 24 hours of that ruling, Alabama implemented a previously-passed 2011 law requiring specific types of photo identification to be presented by voters. The state closed DMV offices in eight of ten counties which had the highest percentage black population, but only three in the ten counties with the lowest black population. In 2016, Alabama's Secretary of State (SOS) John Merrill began the process to require proof of citizenship from voters, despite Merrill saying he did not know of any cases where non-citizens had voted. Four-term Republican Representative Mo Brooks found that he himself had been purged from the rolls. Merrill also declined to publicize the passage of legislation that enabled some 60,000 Alabamian former felons to vote.[132][133] Alabama's requirement regarding proof of citizenship had been approved by federal Election Assistance Commission Director Brian Newby.[134] Kobach had supported Newby in the federal suit, and had appointed him to an elections position in Kansas prior to his EAC appointment.[135]

Alabama boasts the 3rd highest rate of people barred from voting due to a felony conviction per 100,000 residents in each state across the US, according to a recent study.[136] This disproportionately affects African Americans.[136] In 2018, critics accused the state of intentionally disenfranchising non-white voters.[137] The suburban and rural outreach efforts by the Doug Jones campaign were successful and he captured the U.S. Senate seat, the first Democrat in 25 years to do so, and in a state that Donald Trump had won by 30 points.[137]


In Louisville, Georgia, in October 2018, Black senior citizens were told to get off a bus that was to have taken them to a polling place for early voting. The bus trip was supposed to have been part of the "South Rising" bus tour sponsored by the advocacy group Black Voters Matter. A clerk of the local Jefferson County Commission allegedly called the intended voters' senior center to claim that the bus tour constituted "political activity," which is barred at events sponsored by the county. LaTosha Brown, one of the founders of Black Voters Matter, described the trip's prevention as a clear-cut case of "...voter intimidation. This is voter suppression, Southern style." The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund sent a letter to the county calling for an "immediate investigation" into the incident, which it condemned as, "an unacceptable act of voter intimidation," that "potentially violates several laws."[138][needs update]

Georgia's Secretary of State, Brian Kemp, the Republican gubernatorial nominee, was the official in charge of determining whether or not voters were allowed to vote in the November 2018 election and has been accused of voter suppression. Minority voters are statistically more likely to have names that contain hyphens, suffixes or other punctuation that can make it more difficult to match their name in databases, experts noted, and are more likely to have their voter applications suspended by Kemp's office. Barry C. Burden, a professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and director of its Elections Research Center said, "An unrealistic rule of this sort will falsely flag many legitimate registration forms. Moreover, the evidence indicates that minority residents are more likely to be flagged than are whites." Kemp has suspended the applications of 53,000 voters, a majority of whom are minorities. Strict voter registration deadlines in Georgia prevented 87,000 Georgians from voting because they had registered after the deadline.[139] "Even if everyone who is on a pending list is eventually allowed to vote, it places more hurdles in the way of those voters on the list, who are disproportionately black and Hispanic," said Charles Stewart III, Professor of Political Science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[140][needs update]


In 2017, Indiana passed a law allowing the state to purge voters from the rolls without notifying them, based on information from the controversial Crosscheck system. The Indiana NAACP and League of Women Voters have filed a federal lawsuit against Connie Lawson, Indiana's Secretary of State, to stop the purges.[141] In June 2018, a federal judge ruled that the law violated the National Voter Registration Act.[142]



See also: 2020 Georgia (U.S. state) elections

Georgia made efforts to correct voting problems that had occurred in the 2018 election. In the 2020 statewide primary, however, many irregularities were reported, including missing machines at polling places and mail-in ballots that never arrived at voters' houses.[143] Georgia has a law prohibiting felons on probation for crimes involving moral turpitude from voting or registering to vote, with a similar law in Alabama having been criticized by the United States Supreme Court in 471 U.S. 222 (1985) as having roots in white supremacy.[144]


See also: 2020 Texas elections

In March 2020, it was reported that Texas leads the South in closing down voting places, making it more difficult for Democratic-leaning African-Americans and Latinos to vote. The 50 counties that have experienced the greatest increases in African-American and Latino populations had 542 polling sites closed between 2012 and 2018, while those with the lowest increases in minority populations had only 34 closures. Brazoria County, south of Houston, closed 60% of its polling places, below the statutory minimum; the county clerk promised this would not happen again. Texas law allows the centralization of vote centers, which sometimes make it easier for people to vote. However, the 334 poll closures outside of vote centers still put Texas ahead of Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi.[145]

Texas limits who can request absentee postal ballots only to voters over 65, those sick or disabled, those who will be out of the county on election day and those who are in jail.[146] Attempts in court to expand mail in voting before the 2020 elections because of health concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic have been unsuccessful.[147][148] In addition, some eligible postal voters want to lodge postal ballots in advance in drop-off points rather than rely on the postal service, which had warned that ballot papers may not arrive in time to be counted on election day.[149][150] However, on October 1, Texas Governor Greg Abbott, a Republican, ordered a limit of one drop-off location per county.[151]Harris County, for example, received national media attention because it is larger than the size of Rhode Island and has 2.4 million registered voters but is being served by only one voting drop-box location.[152] On October 10, a judge blocked the order to allow only one absentee vote drop-off point per county, on the basis that it would affect older and disabled voters.[149] A Texas appeals court on October 23 confirmed the ruling that the Republican governor cannot limit drop-off sites for mail ballots to one per county.[153]

Some prominent Texas Republicans sued Governor Abbott in September 2020, seeking to limit the number of days early voting was allowed in the state. They sought to push back the early voting start date from October 13 to October 19. Early voting had been expanded by the governor in July, in response to the pandemic and to the limits he had imposed on mail in voting. The same lawsuit also sought to limit the time frame for submitting mail-in ballots in person.[154] A similar lawsuit was filed by Houston Republicans a week later, seeking the same restrictions on in person and absentee ballots in Harris County.[155] The Texas Supreme Court ruled against the Republicans and allowed early voting to take place from October 13 to October 30, 2020.[156]

A conservative activist and three Republican candidates sued in late October 2020 to have 127,000 drive-through ballots cast in predominantly Democratic Harris County, tossed.[157] A federal judge rejected the Republican lawsuit, as did the Texas Supreme Court.[158]

Turnout in the 2020 Texas election increased by more than 6%, breaking a 28-year record, with both major-party Presidential candidates breaking records for the most votes ever cast for a candidate in Texas.[159]


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See also: 2019 Wisconsin elections and 2020 Wisconsin elections

In 2019, district court Judge Paul V. Malloy of Ozaukee County, Wisconsin removed 234,000 voters from state rolls.[160] Wisconsin's Attorney General Josh Kaul appealed to halt the purge, on behalf of the Wisconsin Elections Commission.[161]

The issue was brought before the court by the Wisconsin Institute for Law and Liberty (WILL),[162] a conservative organization mostly supported by the Bradley Foundation, which funds such political causes.[162] The lawsuit demanded that the Wisconsin Election Commission respond to a "Movers Report," generated from voter data analysis produced by the Electronic Registration Information Center (ERIC), a national, non-partisan partnership funded in 2012 by the Pew Charitable Trusts. ERIC shares voter registration information to improve the accuracy of voter rolls.[163][164] The report tagged 234,039 voters who may have moved to an address that had not yet been updated on their voter registration forms. Despite thin evidence for removal of that extraordinary number of qualified voters, Wisconsin may be forced to comply with Malloy's order.[165] On January 2, 2020, WILL said it asked the circuit court to hold the Elections Commission in contempt, fining it up to ,000 daily, until it advances Malloy's December 17, 2019 order to purge from the voting rolls hundreds of thousands of registered voters who possibly have moved to a different address.

The case being litigated in a state appeals court, but it was thought that the conservative-dominated Wisconsin Supreme Court would be likely to hear it.[166] The purge was claimed to be targeting voters in the cities of Madison and Milwaukee, and college towns, which all tend to favor Democrats.[162] Disenfranchisement expert Greg Palast ties the Wisconsin effort at voter purging as part of a national Republican strategy.[167]

COVID-19 pandemic and voting by mail, 2020 US election

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States posed challenges for the 2020 election, with many states expanding mail-in voting to avoid voters having to choose between not voting and risking illness by voting in person. President Trump encouraged restricting mail-in voting, and hundreds of lawsuits were filed disputing whether witness requirements, arrival deadlines, the removal of ballot drop-boxes, the reduction of polling places, and aggressive rejection of "mismatched" signatures infringed the right to vote.[168][169]

The large numbers of COVID-19 cases has postponed primary elections. Voting by mail has become an increasingly common practice in the United States, with 25% of voters nationwide mailing their ballots in 2016 and 2018. The coronavirus pandemic of 2020 is believed to have caused a large increase in mail voting because of the possible danger of congregating at polling places. This method of voting-by-mail may potentially be limited to residents. For the 2020 election, a state-by-state analysis concluded that 76% of Americans would be eligible to vote by mail in 2020, a record number. The analysis predicted that 80 million ballots could be cast by mail in 2020, more than double the number in 2016. Thus, voting in 2020 may exclude minority groups such as homeless people, lower socioeconomic groups, and people that are unable to register to vote via the internet.[citation needed] As an example, the state of New York, with a high spike of COVID cases, has tried to cancel their primary elections and switched to voting-by-mail.[citation needed]

The Postal Service sent a letter to multiple states in July 2020, warning that the service would not be able to meet the state's deadlines for requesting and casting last-minute absentee ballots. The House voted to include an emergency grant of billion to the post office to facilitate the predicted flood of mail ballots. Trump conceded that the post office would need additional funds to handle the additional mail-in voting, and said he will not grant any additional funding because he wanted to prevent any increase in balloting by mail.[citation needed]

As reported on the site Common Dreams, as an example of occurrences across the country, the head of the Iowa Postal Workers Union "alleged [Tuesday August 11, 2020] that mail sorting machines are 'being removed' from Post Offices in her state due to new policies imposed by Postmaster General Louis DeJoy, a major Republican donor to President Donald Trump whose operational changes have resulted in dramatic mail slowdowns across the nation. Asked by National Public Radio's Noel King whether she has felt the impact of DeJoy's changes, Iowa Postal Workers Union President Kimberly Karol—a 30-year Postal Service veteran—answered in the affirmative, saying 'mail is beginning to pile up in our offices, and we're seeing equipment being removed.' Karol went on to specify that 'equipment that we use to process mail for delivery'—including sorting machines—is being removed from Postal Service facilities in Iowa as DeJoy rushes ahead with policies that, according to critics, are sabotaging the Postal Service's day-to-day operations less than 90 days before an election that could hinge on mail-in ballots."[170][171]

Due to the timing of the coronavirus pandemic with respect to the 2020 presidential election, the Brennan Center for Justice has recommended that states establish contingency plans and pandemic task forces to limit the impact the virus has on voter turnout.[172][better source needed] The memorandum encourages the expansion of early voting and online registration, and a universal vote-by mail option; especially for at-risk groups. The memorandum recommends polling places remain open to the extent permissible by public health mandates, to prevent the disenfranchisement of those for whom voting by mail is difficult. Fifteen states (Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia, Wyoming) and Puerto Rico have either delayed their primary elections or switched to voting by mail with extended deadlines.[173] The New York State Board of Elections decided to cancel the 2020 Democratic Primary as New York was experiencing a major outbreak COVID-19 at the time. This decision was met with backlash from supporters of Bernie Sanders' presidential campaign, since although Sanders had suspended his campaign on April 8, he was still eligible to receive delegates and thus influence the 2020 Democratic platform.[174] The 2020 Democratic National Convention was pushed from its original June 9 date to the week of August 17th due to COVID-19.[175] In Wisconsin, Governor Tony Evers (D) issued an executive order postponing in-person voting and extending the deadline for absentee voting to June, in an attempt to limit the spread of the virus. However, the Wisconsin state Supreme Court denied this order; a decision upheld by the US Supreme Court one day before the primary election.[citation needed]

Aftermath of the 2020 election

Main article: Republican efforts to make voting laws more restrictive following the 2020 presidential election

After Joe Biden defeated Donald Trump in the 2020 presidential election, Republican lawmakers around the nation began attacking the voting methods used in the election.[176] Drawing on the false allegations of voting fraud and a stolen election, by February 2021 Republican state legislatures had begun to implement new laws and rules to restrict voting access in ways that would favor Republican candidates.[177] By April 2021, 361 bills in 47 states have been proposed by GOP lawmakers meant to restrict voting access.[178]

In March 2021, John Kavanagh, a Republican elected to the Arizona House of Representatives, justified restrictions on voting: "... everybody shouldn’t be voting... Quantity is important, but we have to look at the quality of votes, as well."[179]

Anti-suppression efforts

Starting in 2015, various states enacted laws for automatic voter registration. At Politico's "State Solutions" voter engagement conference, former Secretary of State and Oregon Governor Kate Brown said, "Registration is a barrier to people participating in this process... [v]oting is a fundamental right of being a citizen, and people across the country should have the ability to access this fundamental right without barriers like registration." She emphatically aimed at critics of policies such as Oregon's "motor voter" law that are aimed at increasing voter turnout, saying, "I think the good news is, in Oregon, we actually want people to vote in our state."[180] As of March 2021, Democrats in Congress were pursuing passage of the For The People Act, which aims to create new national standards for elections, while preventing common forms of voter suppression and easing access to voting. They were also pursuing an update to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had its federal preclearance mechanism for preventing racially motivated voter suppression invalidated by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2013.

See also

  • Gerrymandering in the United States
  • Black suffrage in the United States
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 for relevant court cases


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Further reading

  • Daniels, Gilda R. (2020). Uncounted : the crisis of voter suppression in America. New York. ISBN 978-1-4798-6235-1. OCLC 1090816384.
  • Kousser, J. Morgan (1974). The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-party South, 1880–1910. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01696-3.
  • "American democracy: The spreading scourge of voter suppression", The Economist, UK, October 10, 2020
  • Wang, Tova Andrea (2016). The politics of voter suppression : defending and expanding Americans' right to vote. Ithaca. ISBN 978-0-8014-6603-8. OCLC 967261501.

External links

  • "Save My Vote 2020",, Los Angeles, CA: Palast Investigative Fund, Purged? Check if your voter registration has been cancelled
  • Fighting Voter Suppression
  • The Brennan Center for Justice research page for voter suppression
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07-01-2022 · When you line a tattoo you need to view each line as an individual tattoo. Let the piece fall together by it's self. If you pay attention to one line at a time then the piece as a whole will be perfect. I would tattoo a larger line in sections because when you have to extend the reach of your hand then the contour of your mussels and bone will want to naturally curve inward toward your arm. A ...


Lining isn't as easy as you may think. You need to put a lot of time and consideration into lining. Lining is not a race. Usually the lining of a tattoo will take you longer than shading or coloring it. Now that your machine is set up you can attach the clip cord. It doesn't matter which way. Run the machine and check the tuning. You may have to do some last minute adjustments, but your machine should have been tuned before hand. While running the machine, check to see if the needle tip is jumping around. If it seems loose and not quite seated in the tip then stick another rubber band on the machine. They should be of equal distance apart between the back of the tube and your armature bar. If you put them too close then you will bend the needle bar. The rubber band might also cause the machine to run differently than expected. Once the needle, tube, and rubber band are in the machine;

test the stroke by touching your thumbnail to the grommet while the machine is in motion. If the stroke feels weak then you may have to readjust your machine. With the machine together and tuned you need to use the extra plastic baggie to put over the machine; this will help guard your machine from biological matter that might contain a virus. You do this by tearing a small piece out of the baggie's corner. Then slide the machine needle first into the hole till the baggie gets past the grip of the machine, and simply cover the machine with the rest of the baggie. Watch the tip of the needle so you don't end up with plastic on it.

When you tattoo a line you will have extra pigment left on the skin, this is normal but a pain in the ass. While you tattoo you will constantly have to wipe the pigment away so you can see what has been put under the skin and what has not. The more the needle protrudes from the tube the less excess pigment will be expelled, but the shorter the line you can make before re-dipping. The black pigment is thinner than any other pigment. When you wipe it away you will smear black over everything you drag the paper towel across. If you think about it for a second then you will soon see that the pattern is a light purple line that can easily be wiped away. This leaves a difficult problem. When tattooing over a pattern you can't just start in the middle, because after two or three lines you will no longer be able to see the pattern or what you are doing. You have to start from the bottom and work up and away from your predominant hand. I'm left handed. This means that I would work up and to the right. The side of your hand will rest on the client's skin; you will get black on your hand. If you tattoo left to right, and your right handed, then you going to smear black over the pattern. So if I were tattooing a small square I would do the bottom line first. Then wipe with a dry paper towel down, in the direction away from the center of the pattern leaving any inside lines untouched. Then I would tattoo the far Left line (if your right handed it will be the opposite) wiping the extra pigment left. Then I would tattoo the right line, and then the top, wiping each as I go. Let's say I'm lining a bigger square with a small square inside of it. Then I would line the outside bottom line in two pieces. Then the outer left line while wiping away from the center as I go. Next I would line the inner left line wiping left. So next for me, would be the inner right line because I don't want to smear pigment over the lines left. After wiping I would line the outer right line, top inside line and finally the top outside line. This method will allow each line to be perfectly visible as you line the entire piece.

When you line a tattoo you need to view each line as an individual tattoo. Let the piece fall together by it's self. If you pay attention to one line at a time then the piece as a whole will be perfect. I would tattoo a larger line in sections because when you have to extend the reach of your hand then the contour of your mussels and bone will want to naturally curve inward toward your arm. A larger circle, for example I would break into eight sections while a smaller one would only be four. No matter how big or small, never tattoo a circle as one line. A circle is the absolute hardest thing for and artist to draw, do not take a chance. When the Catholic Church asked Michelangelo to paint the Cisteen Chapel to prove his artistic ability when asked he drew a perfect circle free hand in one stroke. He was no longer in question. Let's say you have a long straight line.

Look at every line with a starting point and a stopping point before you ever tattoo. When you stop a line and continue it there is a small section that will be lined twice. In tattooing this spot will be wider than any where else. Think of tattooing like a sponge. If you just touch the corner of a sponge to water it will be wet, but it you touch the same amount of sponge to the water and hold it there for a second the entire sponge will be wet. So the slower your line work is the thicker the line and the faster you go the thinner and lighter the line will be. That spot in the center of the line will be too dark so you need to start at the opposite end and meet the two together in the middle to avoid this. Remember that lining is all in the fingers. You should plant both hands on the client, then line only using the available motion your fingers allow, this will provide a very steady line. The arm and wrist should not move at all while lining. If you can't reach an area then stop, move your hand, and continue. Let's say the first line is A to B, and the second line is C to D. It would go as follows.


As you line B, you want to drawl the needle out of the skin past the point you want the lines to meet. This will lighten the line at the end of it. Then do the same going from C to D in the opposite direction lightening the line at the end. Both sections that are lighter will combine to make a solid, single, darkened line. So if the A to D point is 100% black and the D to B section in the first stroke is 50% Black. Then the same from C to B and so on then the section between D and B will be 50% 50% = 100%, the perfect width and darkness all the way across. Because the skin will absorb the pigment similar to a sponge you want to pace yourself. If you line to slow then your lines will be thick and you will eat up the skin causing scarring. If you go too fast then your lines will be thin and most of them will disappear when healing. You will need to find a happy medium speed. Once you find you speed of movement you want to use that speed with every tattoo. This way if you ever have to touch up a tattoo you don't need to fish for the right speed to match up the line work. I tell my students to practice on a spaghetti squash and a banana. The banana will fell just like human skin down to the damage over working causes, this way you can get use to the cutting sensation. As you tattoo human skin you will feel a very slight vibration from the resistance of the needle touching the skin. After time you will get to know what feels right and what doesn't. The best way I can explain this is that when done properly, lining feels smooth. It just feels right. When too light, lining feels squirrelly and unstable, and when lining too hard, you fell like your machine is choppy or running roughly. The banana will help you find this, and the skin on a banana is about as thick as human skin so you can better prepare for the proper depth of the needle work. The spaghetti squash feels nothing like tattooing human skin, but it does take pigment the same. You can use spaghetti squash to practice shading, grey wash, and even mag work. It blends almost perfectly like skin. So the combination of the two will get you on your way. Don't bother buying fake skin from the magazines. They may progress with time but for now they are just light pieces of rubber. They look like human skin but you have to dig the hell out of them to look right, so if you practice with these then when you tattoo a person you will cut there leg off.

If you, at some point happen to get pigment smeared over the pattern then use a clean and new paper towel sheet. Put a little bit of water on the paper towel, just enough to dampen the towel on a corner. Never use green soap until the entire pattern is tattooed or it will remove the pattern. Take the damp towel and lightly wipe over the pattern that's blackened. If you push too hard you will remove the pattern, you're just trying to wipe off the black. Then use a dry part of the paper towel to dab, not wipe, the pattern dry before continuing. After the entire outline is complete then you can clean all the extra pigment off of the tattoo. Spray the paper towel with your green soap and your water; you don't want to send any viruses up to infect you. Check your line work and make sure it's all smooth; if you need to darken some then this would be the time. Other than that you are done with the outline. The key points to lining are study and practice before you tattoo human skin. Pace yourself and Work form the bottom up of the pattern while wiping away from the stencil. Every time you dip for pigment, black or color, you should barely touch the tip of the needle to the paper towel at an angle. This will remove most of the extra pigment and allow you to better see what you are doing. Other than that, the more fine tuned your machine is the smoother the lines. Heavy machines like cast iron will provide smoother lines, but lighter machines will not hurt your hand or back while tattooing. Good luck mutilating fruits and vegetables.

Fruit And Vegetable Tattoos Pictures

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28-01-2022 · FilmDeutscher TitelDie Brady FamilyOriginaltitelThe Brady Bunch MovieProduktionsland USAOriginalsprache EnglischErscheinungsjahr 1995Länge 84 MinutenAltersfreigabe FSK 6

FilmDeutscher TitelDie Brady FamilyOriginaltitelThe Brady Bunch MovieProduktionsland USAOriginalsprache EnglischErscheinungsjahr 1995Länge 84 MinutenAltersfreigabe FSK 6StabRegie Betty ThomasDrehbuch Rick Copp,
Laurice Elehwany,
Bonnie Turner,
Terry TurnerProduktion David Kirkpatrick,
Lloyd J. Schwartz,
Sherwood SchwartzMusik Guy MoonKamera Mac AhlbergSchnitt Peter TeschnerBesetzung
  • Shelley Long: Carol Brady
  • Gary Cole: Mike Brady
  • Christine Taylor: Marcia Brady
  • Christopher Daniel Barnes: Greg Brady
  • Jennifer Elise Cox: Jan Brady
  • Paul Sutera: Peter Brady
  • Olivia Hack: Cindy Brady
  • Jesse Lee Soffer: Bobby Brady
  • Henriette Mantel: Alice Nelson
  • David Graf: Sam Franklin
  • Florence Henderson: Großmutter
  • Jack Noseworthy: Eric Dittmeyer
  • Megan Ward: Donna Leonard
  • RuPaul: Mrs. Cummings
  • Beverly Archer: Mrs. Whitfield
  • Elisa Gabrielli: Ms. Lynley
  • Alanna Ubach: Noreen
  • David Proval: Elektriker

Die Brady Family (Originaltitel: The Brady Bunch Movie) ist eine US-amerikanische Filmkomödie aus dem Jahr 1995. Die Regie führte Betty Thomas, das Drehbuch schrieben Rick Copp, Laurice Elehwany, Bonnie Turner und Terry Turner. Die Hauptrollen spielten Shelley Long und Gary Cole.


Carol und Mike Brady sowie ihre Kinder leben in den 1990er Jahren in einem Haus in einer Vorstadt. Die Hauseinrichtung und die Kleidung der Familie entspricht den 1970er Jahren. Die Familie überrascht oft ihre Umgebung mit ihrem Optimismus und mit der Unkenntnis der Realität der 1990er Jahre.

In der Nachbarschaft wohnt Mr. Dittmeyer, ein Immobilienentwickler, der anstelle der Häuser ein Einkaufszentrum errichten will. Die Bradys müssen Grundsteuer nachzahlen und benötigen 20.000 US-Dollar. Mr. Dittmeyer bietet das Geld und will dafür das Haus der Bradys kaufen.

Der Architekt Mike Brady zeigt seine Entwürfe einigen Kunden, die sie nicht zeitgemäß finden. Er verkauft zwar schließlich einen Entwurf, aber Mr. Dittmeyer belügt den Auftraggeber, dass Bradys Bauwerke unsicher seien. Der Auftrag wird zurückgezogen.

Die Kinder gewinnen 20.000 Dollar in einer Show. Die Nachbarn folgen dem Beispiel der Bradys und entscheiden ebenfalls, ihre Häuser nicht zu verkaufen.


Roger Ebert schrieb in der Chicago Sun-Times vom 17. Februar 1995, dass der Film sich zu sehr an das Originalkonzept der Fernsehserie anlehnt. Ein stärkerer Kontrast zur Außenwelt würde lustiger wirken.[1]

Edward Guthmann schrieb im San Francisco Chronicle vom 17. Februar 1995, dass die Komödie von den Kontrasten zwischen den „unschuldigen“ 1970er Jahren und den „aggressiven“ 1990er Jahren lebe. Er beschrieb die Szene des versuchten Autoraubs. Guthmann lobte die Darstellungen von Shelley Long und Gary Cole, die „perfekte“ Besetzungen ihrer Rollen seien.[2]

Das Lexikon des internationalen Films schrieb: „Eine mitreißende Komödie, der eine zur Produktionszeit aktuelle Renaissance der 70er Jahre zugrunde liegt, die sich aber dennoch eine ironische Distanz sowohl zum Serienvorbild als auch zur dargestellten Epoche erhält.“[3]


Der Film wurde im Jahr 1995 für den Casting Society of America Award nominiert. Eine Tanzsequenz wurde 1995 für den MTV Movie Award nominiert. Der Film wurde 1996 für den Young Artist Award nominiert.


Die Komödie basiert auf der Fernsehserie Drei Mädchen und drei Jungen (The Brady Bunch) aus den Jahren 1969 bis 1974. Sie wurde in der Region von Los Angeles gedreht. Ihre Produktion kostete ca. 12 Millionen US-Dollar, das Einspielergebnis in den Kinos der USA betrug 46,6 Millionen US-Dollar.[4] Im Jahr 1996 wurde die Fortsetzung Die Brady Family 2 (A Very Brady Sequel) produziert. Im Jahr 2002 wurde der Fernsehfilm Die Brady Family im Weißen Haus (The Brady Bunch in the White House) produziert.

Vier Originalbesetzungsmitglieder der Serie haben Kurzauftritte in dem Film. Florence Henderson als Großmutter, Ann B. Davis als Truckerin sowie Barry Williams und Christopher Knight.


  • Die Brady Family in der Internet Movie Database (englisch)
  • Die Brady Family bei Rotten Tomatoes (englisch)Vorlage:Rotten Tomatoes/Wartung/Verschiedene Kenner in Wikipedia und Wikidata
  • Die Brady Family bei Metacritic (englisch)
  • Die Brady Family in der Online-Filmdatenbank
  • Die Brady Family in der Deutschen Synchronkartei


  1. Filmkritik von Roger Ebert
  2. Filmkritik von Edward Guthmann
  3. Die Brady Family. In: Lexikon des internationalen Films. Filmdienst, abgerufen am 24. Oktober 2017. Vorlage:LdiF/Wartung/Zugriff verwendet 
  4. Die Brady Family auf
Abgerufen von „“

08-01-2022 · In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of 86 400 SI seconds each. The length of the Julian year is the average length of the year in the Julian calendar that was used in Western societies until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, and from which the unit is named.Nevertheless, because astronomical Julian years are measuring ...

Unit of time and a version of the year often used in astronomy
This article is about the time interval used in astronomy. For years in the Julian calendar, see Julian calendar.

In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a or aj) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each.[1][2][3][4] The length of the Julian year is the average length of the year in the Julian calendar that was used in Western societies until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, and from which the unit is named. Nevertheless, because astronomical Julian years are measuring duration rather than designating dates, this Julian year does not correspond to years in the Julian calendar or any other calendar. Nor does it correspond to the many other ways of defining a year.


The Julian year is not a unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI), but it is recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as a non-SI unit for use in astronomy.[3] Before 1984, both the Julian year and the mean tropical year were used by astronomers. In 1898, Simon Newcomb used both in his Tables of the Sun in the form of the Julian century (36 525 days) and the "solar century" (36524.22 days), a rounded form of 100 mean tropical years of 365.24219879 d each according to Newcomb.[5] However, the mean tropical year is not suitable as a unit of measurement because it varies from year to year by a small amount, 6.14×10−8 days according to Newcomb.[5] In contrast, the Julian year is defined in terms of SI units so is as accurate as those units and is constant. It approximates both the sidereal year and the tropical year to about ±0.008 days. The Julian year is the basis of the definition of the light-year as a unit of measurement of distance.[2]


Main article: Epoch (astronomy)

In astronomy, an epoch specifies a precise moment in time. The positions of celestial objects and events, as measured from Earth, change over time, so when measuring or predicting celestial positions, the epoch to which they pertain must be specified. A new standard epoch is chosen about every 50 years.

The standard epoch in use today is Julian epoch J2000.0. It is exactly 12:00 TT (close to but not exactly Greenwich mean noon) on January 1, 2000 in the Gregorian (not Julian) calendar. Julian within its name indicates that other Julian epochs can be a number of Julian years of 365.25 days each before or after J2000.0. For example, the future epoch J2100.0 will be exactly 36,525 days (one Julian century) from J2000.0 at 12:00 TT on January 1, 2100 (the dates will still agree because the Gregorian century 2000–2100 will have the same number of days as a Julian century).

Because Julian years are not exactly the same length as years on the Gregorian calendar, astronomical epochs will diverge noticeably from the Gregorian calendar in a few hundred years. For example, in the next 1000 years, seven days will be dropped from the Gregorian calendar but not from 1000 Julian years, so J3000.0 will be January 8, 3000 12:00 TT.

Julian calendar distinguished

Main article: Julian calendar

The Julian year, being a uniform measure of duration, should not be confused with the variable length historical years in the Julian calendar. An astronomical Julian year is never individually numbered. When not using Julian day numbers (see next §), astronomers follow the same conventional calendars that are accepted in the world community: They use the Gregorian calendar for events since its introduction on October 15, 1582 (or later, depending on country), and the Julian calendar for events before that date, and occasionally other, local calendars when appropriate for a given publication.

Julian day distinguished

Main article: Julian day

A Julian year should not be confused with the Julian day, which is also used in astronomy (more properly called the Julian day number or JDN). The JDN uniquely specifies a place in time, without becoming bogged down in its date-in-month, week, month, or year in any particular calendar. Despite the similarity of names, there is almost no connection between the Julian day numbers and Julian years.

The Julian day number is a simplified time-keeping system originally intended to ease calculation with historical dates which involve a diversity of local, idiosyncratic calendars. It was adopted by astronomers in the mid-1800s, and identifies each date as the integer number of days that have elapsed since a reference date ("epoch"), chosen to precede most, if not all, historical records. A specific time within a day, always using UTC, is specified via a decimal fraction.


  1. ^ P. Kenneth Seidelmann, ed., The explanatory supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, (Mill Valley, Cal.: University Science Books, 1992), pp. 8, 696, 698–9, 704, 716, 730.
  2. ^ a b "Measuring the Universe". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  3. ^ a b International Astronomical Union. "Recommendations Concerning Units". Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2007. Reprinted from the "IAU Style Manual" by G.A. Wilkinson, Comm. 5, in IAU Transactions XXB (1987).
  4. ^ Harold Rabinowitz and Suzanne Vogel, The manual of scientific style (Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2009) 369.
  5. ^ a b Simon Newcomb, Tables of the Four Inner Planets, vol. 6 of Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (Washington, DC: 1898), pp. 10–11.

External links

  • Astronomy portal
  • Michael Allison (@ Goddard Institute for Space Studies) (2001). "What is a "Year" (on Earth or Mars)?". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
Retrieved from ""
Trumpf (Unternehmen)

19-01-2022 · TRUMPF GmbH + Co. KG Rechtsform GmbH & Co. KG

Rechtsform GmbH & Co. KG Gründung 1923 Sitz Ditzingen, Deutschland Leitung Nicola Leibinger-Kammüller, Vorsitzende der Geschäftsführung,
Peter Leibinger, stellv. Vorsitzender der Geschäftsführung,
Mathias Kammüller,
Lars Grünert,
Stephan Mayer,
Christian Schmitz[1]Mitarbeiterzahl 14.767 (2021)[2]Umsatz 3,5 Mrd. € (2021)[3]Branche Maschinenbau Website Stand: 2020

Die Trumpf-Gruppe (Eigenschreibweise: TRUMPF Gruppe) ist ein Unternehmen mit Hauptsitz in Ditzingen nahe Stuttgart. Trumpf gehört zu den weltweit größten Anbietern von Werkzeugmaschinen.[4] Mit mehr als 70 operativen Tochtergesellschaften ist die Trumpf-Gruppe weltweit in allen wichtigen Märkten vertreten. Produktionsstandorte befinden sich in Deutschland, China, Frankreich, Großbritannien, Italien, Japan, Mexiko, Österreich, Polen, in der Schweiz, in Tschechien und in den USA.


Die Trumpf-Gruppe ist in die beiden Geschäftsbereiche Werkzeugmaschinen und Lasertechnik aufgeteilt. Diese sind unter dem Dach einer Management-Holding, der Trumpf GmbH Co. KG zusammengefasst.[5]



Den größeren Umsatzanteil machen Werkzeugmaschinen für die flexible Blech- und Rohrbearbeitung aus. Trumpf stellt Maschinen zum Stanzen, Biegen, für kombinierte Stanz-Laserprozesse sowie für Laserschneid- und Laserschweißanwendungen her.[6] Dazu kommen Automatisierungslösungen und Software für die vernetzte Produktion.[7]


Das Produktprogramm in der Lasertechnik umfasst Lasersysteme für das Laserschneiden, das Schweißen und die Oberflächenbearbeitung dreidimensionaler Teile sowie Prozessstromversorgungen für industrielle Anwendungen. Trumpf bietet Hochleistungs-CO2-Laser,[8] Scheiben- und Faserlaser, Diodendirektlaser, Ultrakurzpulslaser sowie Beschriftungslaser und -systeme. 3D-Druckmaschinen für metallische Bauteile kamen 2015 zum Produktportfolio hinzu. Die Laser werden zum Beispiel im Automobilbau, der Medizintechnik, bei der Blechfertigung sowie in der Elektronik- und Photovoltaikindustrie eingesetzt.

3-D Laserschneiden

Financial Services

Dieser Geschäftsbereich dient der Absatzfinanzierung. Im Frühjahr 2014 erhielt Trumpf Financial Services GmbH eine Banklizenz.[9][10] Das Unternehmen gehört dem Bundesverband Deutscher Leasing-Unternehmen und dem Bankenfachverband e. V. an.[11][12]

Digitale Geschäftsplattform

2015 gründete Trumpf die Tochtergesellschaft Axoom. Sie entwickelt und betreibt eine digitale Geschäftsplattform für fertigende Unternehmen.[13] Im Juli 2019 gab Trumpf bekannt, dass GFT Technologies SE die Geschäftsaktivitäten und Mitarbeiter von AXOOM am Standort Karlsruhe übernimmt.[14]

Neue Form der Chip-Herstellung

Für eine neue Form der Chip-Herstellung hat Trumpf zusammen mit Zeiss und ASML ein Lasersystem entwickelt, das mithilfe von EUV-Lithographie Chips belichtet.

Am 25. November 2020 gewann das Projekt (Trumpf Lasersystems for Semiconductors Manufacturing GmbH, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH und das beteiligte Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik IOF) den Deutschen Zukunftspreis, der vom Bundespräsidenten jährlich verliehen wird.[15]



Im Jahr 1923 erwarb Christian Trumpf zusammen mit zwei Partnern die mechanische Werkstätte Julius Geiger GmbH in Stuttgart. Das Unternehmen stellte biegsame Wellen her, die unter anderem bei Maschinen zur Metallbearbeitung zum Einsatz kommen, und motorbetriebene Handscheren zum Schneiden von Blech. Die Firma zog 1933 in den Stuttgarter Vorort Weilimdorf um. Trumpf beschäftigte während des Krieges etwa zwanzig französische Zwangsarbeiter. Die Produktionsstätten überstanden die Kriegsjahre unbeschädigt.[16]

Eine der ersten motorbetriebenen Handscheren


Stationäre Maschinen zur Blechbearbeitung waren in der Nachkriegszeit ein Hauptbestandteil des Produktprogrammes. 1950 beschäftigte Trumpf 145 Mitarbeiter und der Umsatz überstieg erstmals eine Million D-Mark. Zehn Jahre später waren es 325 Mitarbeiter und 11 Millionen DM Umsatz. 1963 gründete die Firma in Baar im schweizerischen Kanton Zug die erste Auslandsgesellschaft.


Trumpf-Standort in Farmington, Connecticut, USA

1968 stellte Trumpf mit der TRUMATIC 20 die erste Blechbearbeitungsmaschine mit numerischer Bahnsteuerung her. Abgesehen von Werkzeugwechseln ermöglichte diese Maschine einen vollautomatischen Arbeitsablauf. Sämtliche Informationen zur Bearbeitung des Werkstückes sind auf Lochstreifen gespeichert.

Ein Jahr später gründete das Unternehmen eine Tochtergesellschaft in Farmington, Connecticut, in den USA. Farmington ist inzwischen zweitgrößter Standort des Unternehmens und Hauptsitz für den gesamten amerikanischen Markt. 1972 verlegte Trumpf seinen Hauptsitz nach Ditzingen. 1978 wurde Berthold Leibinger Geschäftsführender Gesellschafter und gründete noch im selben Jahr eine Tochtergesellschaft in Japan.

Am Beispiel des Weltmarktführers Trumpf ist die zukünftige Ausrichtung und Fokussierung branchengleicher Unternehmen exemplarisch aufgezeigt worden.[17]


Laserschweißen von Dickblechen

Im Jahr 1985 führte Trumpf mit dem LASER TLF 1000 einen eigenen CO2-Laser vor. Er hatte eine Strahlleistung von über 1 kW und war der erste kompakte Laserresonator mit Hochfrequenzanregung. 1988 wurde die Trumpf Lasertechnik GmbH gegründet.

1992 begannen die Aktivitäten bei Festkörperlasern mit der Beteiligung an der Haas Laser GmbH in Schramberg. Das Unternehmen gehört inzwischen zu 100 % zur Trumpf-Gruppe. Am Stammsitz Ditzingen wurde am 20. November 1998 eine neue Laserfabrik eingeweiht.[16]

2020 schließt Trumpf die Umfirmierung und Eingliederung seiner hundertprozentigen Tochtergesellschaft SPI Lasers (Faserlaser) in die Trumpf-Gruppe und unter die Trumpf-Marke ab. Die Gesellschaft SPI Lasers UK Ltd. mit Sitz in Southampton (UK) firmiert nun unter dem Namen Trumpf Laser UK Ltd.[18]

Neue Geschäftsfelder

In den 1990er Jahren erweiterte Trumpf sein Produktprogramm durch die Integration weiterer Verfahren wie dem Biegen (1992) und der Rohrbearbeitung (1999).[19] Dazu erschloss Trumpf auch völlig neue Geschäftsbereiche wie die Medizintechnik, die 2013 wieder verkauft wurde.[20]

Unternehmensstandort der Tochter INGENERIC in Baesweiler innerhalb der Technologieregion Aachen

Seit 2013 gehört zu Trumpf die INGENERIC GmbH,[21] ein Hersteller von Mikrooptiken und optischen Komponenten.


2005, kurz vor seinem 75. Geburtstag, trat Berthold Leibinger nach 40 Jahren von der Geschäftsführung zurück. Seine Tochter Nicola Leibinger-Kammüller wurde die neue Vorsitzende der Geschäftsführung.[22] Neben ihrem Bruder Peter Leibinger, der stellvertretender Vorsitzender ist, gehört auch ihr Ehemann Mathias Kammüller zur Geschäftsführung.[23]

Kennzahlen der Trumpf-Gruppe

Gebäude am Stammsitz in Ditzingen
Geschäftsjahr Umsatz Mitarbeiter
2020/21 3,5 Mrd. Euro[24] 14.767 Mitarbeiter, davon 7.602 in Deutschland
2019/20 3,5 Mrd. Euro[25] ca. 14.300 Mitarbeiter, davon 7.437 in Deutschland
2018/19 3,8 Mrd. Euro[26] ca. 14.500 Mitarbeiter, davon 7.400 in Deutschland
2017/18 3,6 Mrd. Euro[27] ca. 13.420 Mitarbeiter, davon 6.800 in Deutschland
2016/17 3,1 Mrd. Euro ca. 11.883 Mitarbeiter, davon 5.860 in Deutschland
2015/16 2,81 Mrd. Euro ca. 11.181 Mitarbeiter, davon 5.626 in Deutschland
2014/15 2,72 Mrd. Euro ca. 10.873 Mitarbeiter, davon 5.413 in Deutschland
2013/14 2,59 Mrd. Euro ca. 10.914 Mitarbeiter, davon ca. 5.599 in Deutschland
2012/13 2,34 Mrd. Euro ca. 9.925 Mitarbeiter, davon ca. 5.348 in Deutschland
2011/12 2,33 Mrd. Euro ca. 9.555 Mitarbeiter, davon ca. 5.207 in Deutschland
2010/11 2,03 Mrd. Euro ca. 8.550 Mitarbeiter, davon ca. 4.675 in Deutschland
2008/09 1,34 Mrd. Euro ca. 8.000 Mitarbeiter, davon ca. 4.550 in Deutschland
2007/08 2,14 Mrd. Euro ca. 8.000 Mitarbeiter, davon ca. 4.550 in Deutschland

Siehe auch

  • Liste von Werkzeugmaschinenbauern


  • Inga Michler: Wirtschaftswunder 2010. Deutschlands Familienunternehmer erobern die Weltmärkte. Campus Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-593-39005-5.
  • Jörg Raupach: Erfahrungen eines mittelständischen Unternehmens in Japan: TRUMPF. In: Japan ist offen. Springer Verlag, 1998, ISBN 3-642-63766-3.
  • Jochen Streb: Trumpf. Geschichte eines Familienunternehmens. München: Carl Hanser Verlag, 2018


Commons: Trumpf – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien
  • Website der Trumpf-Gruppe


  1. Impressum | TRUMPF. Abgerufen am 22. Juli 2021. 
  2. TRUMPF Umsatz über Vorjahresniveau. TRUMPF, 26. Oktober 2021, abgerufen am 26. Oktober 2021. 
  3. TRUMPF mit erneutem Umsatzwachstum, aber rückläufigem Auftragseingang. TRUMPF, 25. Juli 2019, abgerufen am 25. Juli 2019. 
  4. Themenseite: Trumpf. In: Abgerufen am 17. August 2015. 
  5. Trumpf: Geschäftsfelder im Geschäftsbericht
  6. Trumpf: Produkte, Maschinen und Systeme
  7. TRUMPF Website: Produkte. Abgerufen am 16. Oktober 2017. 
  8. CO2-Laser/
  9. Neue Banken für den Mittelstand. In: Abgerufen am 17. August 2015. 
  10. Not macht erfinderisch: Maschinenbauer gründet Bank. In: Abgerufen am 17. August 2015. 
  11. fiveandfriends GmbH: BDL – Bundesverband Deutscher Leasing-Unternehmen e. V.: Mitgliederverzeichnis. In: Abgerufen am 17. August 2015. 
  12. Verzeichnis
  13. Produktion: TRUMPF gründet Software Haus Axoom. Abgerufen am 16. Oktober 2017. 
  14. TRUMPF: TRUMPF beschleunigt Ausbau der Smart Factory Lösungen. Abgerufen am 27. September 2019. 
  15. Team 1 - 2020 | Deutscher Zukunftspreis. Abgerufen am 26. Oktober 2021. 
  16. ab Trumpf: Geschichte des Unternehmens
  17. Max Hartmann: Die Wettbewerbsstärke deutscher Unternehmen in der Maschinenbaubranche. (PDF) In: Research Paper on Marketing Strategy No. 7 2013, ab Seite 15. 2013, abgerufen am 17. August 2015. 
  18. Trumpf: Tochterunternehmen SPI Lasers wird umfirmiert • Pergler Media. In: Pergler Media. 7. Dezember 2020, abgerufen am 7. Dezember 2020 (deutsch). 
  19. Epoche 1996–2004. Abgerufen am 16. Oktober 2017. 
  20. Maschinenbauer: Trumpf verkauft Medizin-Techniksparte an US-Konzern Hill-Rom. ( [abgerufen am 16. Oktober 2017]). 
  21. About Us - INGENERIC GmbH. INGENERIC GmbH, abgerufen am 29. Oktober 2020 (englisch). 
  22. Familienbande. Abgerufen am 17. August 2015. 
  23. Trumpf: Geschäftsführung
  24. TRUMPF Umsatz über Vorjahresniveau // Rekordzuwachs beim Auftragseingang // EBIT-Rendite steigt auf 10,5 Prozent. Abgerufen am 20. Dezember 2021. 
  25. TRUMPF mit rückläufigem Umsatz und Auftragseingang. TRUMPF, 22. Juli 2020, abgerufen am 22. Juli 2020. 
  26. TRUMPF mit erneutem Umsatzwachstum, aber rückläufigem Auftragseingang. TRUMPF, 25. Juli 2019, abgerufen am 25. Juli 2019. 
  27. Trumpf: Pressemitteilung

48.8189039.069656Koordinaten: 48° 49′ 8,1″ N, 9° 4′ 10,8″ O

Normdaten (Körperschaft): GND: 4580541-6 (OGND, AKS) | VIAF: 160440272
Abgerufen von „“

08-01-2022 · FilmDeutscher Titel3 Days to KillOriginaltitel3 Days to KillProduktionsland Vereinigte Staaten, FrankreichOriginalsprache Englisch, Französisch, DeutschErscheinungsjahr 2014Länge 116 Minuten

FilmDeutscher Titel3 Days to KillOriginaltitel3 Days to KillProduktionsland Vereinigte Staaten, FrankreichOriginalsprache Englisch, Französisch, DeutschErscheinungsjahr 2014Länge 116 MinutenAltersfreigabe FSK 12[1]
JMK 14[2]StabRegie McGDrehbuch Luc Besson,
Adi HasakProduktion Ryan Kavanaugh,
Marc LibertMusik Guillaume RousselKamera Thierry ArbogastSchnitt Audrey SimonaudBesetzungSynchronisation

3 Days to Kill (doppeldeutig, deutsch: 3 Tage, um zu töten oder 3 Tage (her)umzubringen) ist ein amerikanisch-französischer Action-Thriller des Regisseurs McG aus dem Jahr 2014. Die Hauptrolle des Ethan Renner übernahm der US-amerikanische Schauspieler Kevin Costner.


Im Hotel Jugoslavija in Belgrad (Serbien) soll das Team um den alternden CIA-Agenten Ethan Renner den Albino beim Verkauf einer Bombe fassen, um an seinen Auftraggeber, den Wolf, heranzukommen. Der Wolf, dessen Gesicht unbekannt ist, gilt weltweit als einer der meistgesuchten Terroristen. Nachdem die Käufer der Bombe ausgeschaltet wurden, misslingt infolge einer inszenierten Explosion der Terroristen der Zugriff der Agenten und der Albino entkommt.

Nach seiner Rückkehr erfährt Renner, der eine verschleppte Grippe hat, von einem CIA-Arzt, dass er an einem Glioblastom leidet, der bereits in andere Organe metastasiert habe, und nur noch drei bis fünf Monate zu leben habe und somit Weihnachten verpassen werde. Er will die kurze verbleibende Zeit mit seiner 15-jährigen Tochter Zoey in Paris verbringen. Da Ethans Ex-Frau Christine der Meinung ist, dass Ethan lange genug seine Vaterpflichten vernachlässigt habe, und sie wegen eines geschäftlichen Termins ein paar Tage nach London muss, übergibt sie Zoey ihrem Vater. Ethan verspricht Christine, nicht mehr für die CIA Menschen zu töten.

Die junge Agentin Vivi schlägt Ethan einen Deal vor: Wenn er es innerhalb von drei Tagen schafft, den Wolf zu töten, gibt sie ihm ein experimentelles Medikament, das Ethans Leben trotz seiner Krankheit verlängern kann. Da Ethan findet, dass er nichts zu verlieren habe, schlägt er ein. Vivi gibt ihm daraufhin die erste Spritze.

Renner macht den Chauffeur von Albinos Buchhalter ausfindig und verhört ihn. Daraufhin kann er den Buchhalter entführen. Die Verhöre werden immer wieder durch Anrufe Zoeys unterbrochen, mit der Ethan mehr Zeit verbringen will und der er näherkommt. Dadurch kommt er in zeitliche Bedrängnis, den Auftrag auszuführen. Zudem kämpft er gegen die Nebenwirkungen des Medikaments wie Schwindelanfälle und Halluzinationen.

Bei einer rasanten Verfolgungsjagd mit dem Auto durch Paris kann Renner den Wagen mit dem Wolf und dem Albino über eine Brüstung rammen. In einer U-Bahn-Station stellt Renner den Wolf, erleidet aber wieder einen Schwindelanfall. Er wird vom Albino überwältigt, kann ihn aber im letzten Moment vor eine einfahrende U-Bahn stoßen. Der Wolf entkommt erneut.

Auf Zoeys Abschlussparty stellt sich heraus, dass der Wolf der Geschäftspartner des Vaters von Zoeys Freund Hugh ist. Bei einer Schießerei kann Renner die Leibwächter des Wolfs ausschalten. Der Wolf stürzt mit einem Aufzug ab, nachdem Renner die Befestigungen dessen zerstört hatte, und überlebt schwer verletzt. Vivi kommt hinzu und fordert Renner dazu auf, seinen Auftrag zu Ende zu bringen. Dieser erinnert sich aber an sein Versprechen seiner Ex-Frau gegenüber und erschießt den Wolf nicht; dies erledigt schließlich Vivi.

Vivi teilt Renner zudem mit, dass das Medikament scheinbar gewirkt habe. Am Ende des Films kann Renner mit seiner Familie in einem Haus an der Küste Weihnachten feiern. Er erhält ein Paket von Vivi, das als Weihnachtsgeschenk eine weitere Spritze enthält.


Am 6. August 2012 meldete das amerikanische Online-Magazin Deadline, dass Kevin Costner die Hauptrolle des Ethan Renner in dem neuen Action-Film von Regisseur McG angeboten wurde.[3] Das Drehbuch des hauptsächlich in Paris spielenden Films schrieben Luc Besson und Adi Hasak. Produziert wurde er unter anderem von EuropaCorp und RelativityMedia. Am 2. Oktober 2012 wurde bekannt, dass Kevin Costner die Hauptrolle übernehmen würde. Am 29. November 2012 trat Hailee Steinfeld dem Team als weibliche Hauptdarstellerin und am 13. Dezember 2012 Amber Heard bei. Am 7. Januar 2013 wurde Connie Nielsen dem Cast hinzugefügt.

Am 7. Januar 2013 wurde in Paris und Belgrad gedreht. Einige Szenen in Paris wurden in Studios gedreht. Als Hotel, das zu Beginn des Films zu sehen ist, diente das Hotel Jugoslavija in Belgrad.[4]

Von dem Film gibt es mehrere Schnittfassungen. Zum einen ist die US-amerikanische Kinofassung gegenüber der internationalen etwa 52 Sekunden länger.[5] Zum anderen ist die Unrated-Fassung gegenüber der Kinofassung etwa fünf Minuten länger.[6]

Besetzung und Synchronisation

Die deutschsprachige Synchronisation des Films entstand bei der Scalamedia GmbH. Verfasser des Dialogbuchs war Marius Clarén, Dialogregie führte Solveig Duda, welche die Rolle der Yasmin selbst sprach.[7]

Rolle Darsteller Synchronsprecher
Ethan Renner Kevin Costner Frank Glaubrecht
Vivi Delay, CIA-Agentin Amber Heard Anne Helm
Zoey Renner, Tochter von Ethan Renner Hailee Steinfeld Lisa May-Mitsching
Christine Renner, Ehefrau von Ethan Renner Connie Nielsen Katrin Fröhlich
Der Wolf Richard Sammel N. N.
Der Albino Tómas Lemarquis Valentin Stilu
Guido, Buchhalter des Albino Bruno Ricci N. N.
Mitat Yilmaz, Chauffeur von Guido und dem Albino Marc Andréoni Tayfun Bademsoy
Hugh, Freund von Zoey Jonas Bloquet Ricardo Richter
Jules, Familienoberhaupt der Wohnungsbesetzer Eriq Ebouaney N. N.
Abbate, Sohn von Jules Joakhim Sigue N. N.
Sumia, schwangere Wohnungsbesetzerin Alison Valence N. N.
CIA-Direktor Raymond J. Barry Thomas Kästner
Yasmin, CIA-Agentin im Hotel Jugoslavija Maï Anh Le Solveig Duda


Am 17. Dezember 2013 veröffentlichten die Studios den ersten Trailer und das offizielle Poster zum Film. Ab dem 14. Februar 2014 sollte der Film in den amerikanischen Kinos laufen. Der Starttermin wurde dann aber doch um eine Woche auf den 21. Februar verschoben. In Deutschland startete der Film am 8. Mai 2014.[8]


Auf Rotten Tomatoes fielen nur 28 % von 111 gewerteten Rezensionen in ihrem Urteil positiv aus. Der zugesammengefasste Konsens der Seite lautet: „3 Days to Kill mischt auf unsichere Weise technisch versierte Actionsequenzen mit einem unterentwickelten Familienkonflikt.“[9]Metacritic ermittelte einen Wert von 40 % basierend auf 30 Kritiken.[10]

James Berardinelli kritisierte auf die Szenen zwischen Kevin Costner und Hailee Steinfeld als „künstlich, nervig und langweilig“. Es gebe im ganzen Film „keinen einzigen menschlichen Moment“. Zwar sei in den Szenen mit der „bizarren, absurden“ Vivi durchaus ein wenig „verrückter Humor“ erkennbar, doch Costner, welcher 3 Days to Kill nach Berardinellis Meinung nicht als Komödie auffasste, spiele „derart düster und ernst“, dass er dem Film jeglichen Spaß austreibe.[11]

Frank Scheck bezeichnete den Film im Hollywood Reporter vom 20. Februar 2014 als „widersinnige Vermanschung von Action, Humor und Sentimentalität“, lobte aber die Darstellung von Costner, der alles mit einem „trocken-humoristischen Flair“ absolviere. 3 Days to Kill sei „absurd“ und erinnere „an einen typischen Besson“; er sei jedoch „auch unbestreitbar unterhaltsam“.[12]

Gänzlich negativ fiel wiederum die Kritik von Cinema aus. Der Film sei „aufgemacht wie ein Actionthriller“, entpuppe sich jedoch als „peinliche Familienkomödie, deren Running Gag darin“ bestehe, dass Costner „als todkranker CIA-Killer mit einem lilafarbenen Damenbike durch Paris“ radle. Die Zeitschrift fand es bedauerlich, „dass es gegen derart miese Drehbücher kein Serum“ gebe, und fragte, wie es dieser „gottlose Blödsinn“ bloß ins Kino geschafft habe.[13]

Carsten Baumgardt von Filmstarts befand, die „krude Spionage-Story im Stil des harten, paranoiagetränkten 70er-Jahre-Kinos“ sei „holprig erzählt und nie länger als 30 Sekunden am Stück glaubwürdig“, mache aber „dank eines großartigen Kevin Costner“ dennoch Spaß. Dieser sei „der unbestrittene Star und die Seele des Films“, während Hailee Steinfeld an seiner Seite „eine solide Leistung“ zeige, aber „die entschieden unauffälligere Rolle“ verkörpere. Dagegen dürfe es Amber Heard „mit lustvoll-undezentem Overacting krachen lassen“. Die angestrebte Verbindung eines „abgehobenen Agenten-Thriller[s]“ mit einer „persönlichen Familiengeschichte“ misslinge jedoch „über weite Strecken, weil sich beide Elemente zu oft gegenseitig im Weg stehen“.[14]

Der Filmdienst urteilte: „Ein synthetischer Agententhriller, der ohne jegliches Taktgefühl Sujets und Tonlagen mengt und den Plot unter einem Wust aus Sentimentalität und geschmacklosen Brutalitäten erdrückt. Um so mehr sticht die souveräne Haltung des Hauptdarstellers hervor.“[15]


Das Filmbudget betrug etwa 28 Millionen US-Dollar. Die weltweiten Einnahmen beliefen sich auf ca. 52,6 Millionen US-Dollar.[16]


  • 3 Days to Kill in der Internet Movie Database (englisch)
  • 3 Days to Kill bei Rotten Tomatoes (englisch)
  • 3 Days to Kill bei Metacritic (englisch)
  • 3 Days to Kill in der Online-Filmdatenbank
  • 3 Days to Kill in der Deutschen Synchronkartei


  1. Freigabebescheinigung für 3 Days to Kill. Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft, März 2014 (PDF; Prüf­nummer: 144 221 K).
  2. Alterskennzeichnung für 3 Days to Kill. Jugendmedien­kommission.
  3. Mike Fleming Jr: After 'Hatfields & McCoys', Kevin Costner Eyes Jack Ryan, 'Three Days To Kill'. In: 6. August 2012, abgerufen am 29. Januar 2020 (englisch). 
  4. 3 Days to Kill - Filming & Production. In: Internet Movie Database. Abgerufen am 12. Januar 2017. 
  5. Schnittvergleich. In: Abgerufen am 14. Februar 2016.
  6. Schnittvergleich. In: Abgerufen am 14. Februar 2016.
  7. 3 Days to Kill in der Deutschen Synchronkartei
  8. 3 Days to Kill - Release Info. In: Internet Movie Database. Abgerufen am 12. Januar 2017. 
  9. 3 Days to Kill. In: Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango, abgerufen am 24. April 2021 (englisch). 
  10. 3 Days to Kill. In: Metacritic. CBS, abgerufen am 24. April 2021 (englisch). 
  11. James Berardinelli: 3 Days to Kill. In: 23. Februar 2014, abgerufen am 12. Januar 2017. 
  12. ScheckFrank: 3 Days to Kill. In: 20. Februar 2014, abgerufen am 12. Januar 2017. 
  13. 3 Days to Kill. In: cinema. Abgerufen am 24. April 2021. 
  14. Carsten Baumgardt: 3 Days to Kill. In: Abgerufen am 12. Januar 2017. 
  15. 3 Days to Kill. In: Lexikon des internationalen Films. Filmdienst, abgerufen am 24. April 2021.  
  16. 3 Days to Kill. In: Box Office Mojo. Abgerufen am 12. Januar 2017. 
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Multiply Fractions Using Area Models with a Freebie for ...

09-01-2022 · When it came time to start multiplying fractions with my 5th graders, I remembered how difficult it was to use area models with my 5th graders last year. It was so difficult because our district-provided math text has students creating fraction models in tiny boxes and then shading them in. Ironically, the lesson is titled "Hands-On Multiply Fractions". Drawing models is not hands-on enough ...


Confession.  Math was my worst subject in school.  Calculus?  I honestly don't know how I survived college level calc with Dr. K.  I think he just took pity on me.  

Looking back now, I had some not so great math teachers.  I don't want to be that teacher - I mean, who aims for "not so great"?   I want to be the teacher that I wish I had when I was young.  Now, I LOVE math and LOVE teaching math.  I want my students to LOVE math too.  That's a lot of love.   To become the math teacher I wish I had, I seek and create ways to make math meaningful, hands-on and fun!  

When it came time to start multiplying fractions with my 5th graders, I remembered how difficult it was to use area models with my 5th graders last year.  It was so difficult because our district-provided math text has students creating fraction models in tiny boxes and then shading them in.  Ironically, the lesson is titled "Hands-On Multiply Fractions".  Drawing models is not hands-on enough for me!

I had an idea to use clear fraction models that they could overlap to see the area models multiply. I immediately thought of overhead transparency film and that YES I could print models on this!  I created fraction models, printed them, cut them out, and viola! Perfect.  

I allowed my students a chance to play with the models first.

Next,  I modeled how to multiply fractions using the area model using this terrific online interactive,  I also modeled how to use the fraction transparency models using my document camera.

I let my students "play" with the models on their individual whiteboards.  They created and solved their own problems.  They LOVED this activity.


I created area model problem pages for students to use the models to create and solve the problem and then draw the models and the product.

I've created a freebie of the fraction models just for you!  Click on the image below to download the fraction models!


This freebie is just one page of my 30-page resource  Multiply Fractions with Area Models that is available in my TeachersPayTeachers store!  This resource includes a set of expressions and product models for students to sort - great in workstations for extra practice.  

Use task cards with the fraction models for students to practice multiplying fractions with the area models. This also helps students practice drawing the area models.

This resource also includes expression cards to match with the product model for even more practice.


And there is now a DIGITAL version in Google Slides.  This resource contains 20 problems with moveable fraction models to manipulate on Google Slides and students then type in their answers.


The digital version also includes a 10 question self-grading Google Form assessment to check for student understanding.


You can find my resources in my TPT store using the links below.

Find the PRINT version here.

Find the DIGITAL version here.

You can also find a money-saving bundle of both resources here. 


10 Major Side Effects Of Eating Too Many Watermelons ...

20-01-2022 · However, there are also some side effects of eating too many watermelons. Side Effects Of Eating Too Many Watermelons. Following are the major side effects of eating too many watermelons. (1) May Cause Internal Internal Disturbances . Lycopene, a carotenoid phytonutrient in watermelon strengthens our bones, provides anti-inflammatory benefits, and reduces the risk of various cancers. …


Watermelon is a delicious fruit that grows on a tree of the same name. It belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family and is related to cucumber, squash, and pumpkin, etc. They are considered as both fruit and vegetable. Vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and dietary fibers, etc in watermelon provide many health and beauty benefits. However, there are also some side effects of eating too many watermelons.

Side Effects Of Eating Too Many Watermelons

Following are the major side effects of eating too many watermelons.

(1) May Cause Internal Internal Disturbances

Lycopene, a carotenoid phytonutrient in watermelon strengthens our bones, provides anti-inflammatory benefits, and reduces the risk of various cancers.

However, an excess amount of lycopene may cause nausea and other digestive problems like bloating, diarrhea, vomiting, indigestion, and flatulence, etc.

Eat watermelon in moderation to avoid the risk.

(2) May Cause Cardiovascular Problems

Watermelon is good for our heart health as they contain antioxidants and relevant compounds such as lycopene that protect our cardiovascular system from free radical damage.

Watermelon manages cholesterol and reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition that hardens and narrows our arteries due to the accumulation of plaque and fat deposits in the arterial walls.

It is a leading cause of cardiovascular problems like heart attack, heart stroke, and coronary artery disease.

Watermelon contains potassium, a natural vasodilator that relaxes blood vessels, improves blood circulation, and provide relief from hypertension, a 

However, too much potassium may drop our blood pressure below the healthy range and give rise to cardiovascular problems like weak pulse, irregular heartbeat, and cardiac arrest. It may also affect the functioning of the nervous system. 

(3) Watermelon And Diabetes

Despite having a high glycemic index of 80, watermelon help in managing diabetes as it is low in carbohydrates and has a glycemic load of 5.

Because of its low carbohydrates level, watermelon doesn’t cause a sudden spike in blood sugar level and helps in managing diabetes. 

Dietary fibers in watermelon slow down the rate at which sugar is absorbed by the bloodstream and keep blood sugar under control.

However, overeating watermelons may disrupt our blood sugar levels as they are rich in natural sugars.

Excessive consumption of watermelon may increase the risk of high blood sugar and give rise to symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, stomach pain, and dry mouth, etc. 

If you take diabetes medication, eat watermelon after consulting with your doctor and ensure there is no risk of food-drug interference. 

(4) May Drop Blood Pressure

The vasodilating properties of potassium in watermelon relax our blood vessels, improve blood circulation, and provide relief from hypertension or high blood pressure.

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a silent killer that increases the risk of cardiovascular and other health problems. 

Eat watermelons moderately as otherwise they may drop blood pressure below the healthy range and cause fainting, nausea, trouble breathing, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, blurred vision, dehydration, pale skin, and lack of concentration, etc. 

Consult your doctor before eating watermelons while being on blood pressure medication, and ensure there is no food-drug interference. 

(5) May Cause Allergies

Avoid watermelon if you are allergic to watermelon as it may cause mild rashes, anaphylaxis, and facial swelling. 

You are more likely to be allergic to watermelons if you are allergic to carrots, latex, or cucumber. 

(6) Eating Watermelon During Pregnancy And Nursing

Natural sugars in watermelon may cause and worsen the risk of gestational diabetes during pregnancy.

Watermelon may also interact with other medications prescribed by the doctor during pregnancy.

Consult your doctor before eating watermelons during pregnancy, and ensure there is no risk involved. 

(7) May Cause Digestive Problems

Dietary fibers and abundance of water ( around 92 percent) in watermelon improve our bowel movement and relieve constipation.

However, watermelon also contains Sorbitol, a natural sugar that may cause digestive problems like bloating, abdominal pain, and flatulence, etc. 

To avoid the risk, eat watermelons moderately. 

(8) Arginine Side Effects

Watermelon contains arginine, an amino acid that improves sexual health and provides other benefits such as relieving chest pain, preventing inflammation, regulating high blood pressure, and so on.

However, overeating watermelon may increase the arginine level in our body.

In large doses, arginine may cause abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gouts, allergies, and worsen asthma symptoms.

(9) May Cause Overhydration

Our body needs water for various biochemical activities. Our body is made up of about 70 percent water, and some vital organs like the liver and kidneys are more than 80 percent water. 

Watermelon has an abundance of water ( about 92 percent) and fulfills our body’s need for hydration.

However, overconsuming watermelon may overhydrate our body and dilute the level of essential nutrients and mineral salts such as potassium and magnesium, etc.

It may increase the risk of water retention which may cause swelling in the legs, and increase the risk of fatigue with people with weak kidneys. 

(10) Not Suitable For People Suffering From Hyperkalemia

Overeating watermelons may raise potassium levels in our body, and increase the risk of hyperkalemia. 

It may cause cardiovascular problems like irregular heartbeat, weak pulse, cardiac arrest, and poor nerve health. 

High potassium level is bad for people suffering from kidneys, and they should be cautious of the same.


The information contained in the post is for general purpose only and shouldn’t be considered as medical advice or as an alternative to medical advice. Although I’ve tried my best to keep the information contained in this post as accurate and updated as possible, I make no guarantee of the accurateness of the same.

P.S- Consider sharing this post, if you find it useful and/or interesting.

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